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  • Enzymes
    • What are they?
      • biological catalysts that speed up the rate of metabolic reactions, whilst remaining unchanged
      • control all reactions
        • metabolism
          • large molecules broken down to smaller ones (catabolic)
          • smaller molecules are built up into large complex ones (anabolic)
      • All reactions are catalysed by an enzyme
    • Globular proteins
    • Properties
      • specific (only catalyse one reaction)
        • e.g. sucrase on sucrose
      • Very efficient (lots of molecules of substrate converted to product per unit time)
      • Break down toxic materials quickly
    • Where do enzymes work?
      • intracellularly
        • ATPase, DNA polymerase, DNA helicase
      • Extracellularly
        • Amylase, pepsin
    • How do enzymes work?
      • lower activation energy allowing reactions occur at lower temps
      • activation energy = energy needed to break existing chemical bonds and start off the reaction


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