EQ1 Summary

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  • EQ1: Why are coastal landscapes different and processes cause these differences?
    • Littoral zone - wider coastal zone divided into sub zones.
      • Backshore - area between high water mark and landward limit of marine activity.
      • Foreshore - area lying between high water mark and low water mark (optimum for marine activity)
      • Nearshore - low water mark and area where waves cease to have an influence.
      • Offshore - area beyond the point where waves cease to have an impact on the seabed and in which activity is limited to the deposition of sediment.
    • Definition of coastal landscape
    • Define coastal zone
    • Factors affecting coastal zones
      • Biotic factors
      • Geomorphic factors
        • mass movement
      • Tectonic factors/historical
        • E.g. Coastal uplift
      • Climate
      • Marine Factors
        • waves
      • Human activity
      • Geology
    • Classification of coasts
      • Changed over time due to sea level change and erosion and deposition
    • Cliff types
      • Rocky: varying height and resistance, distinct boundaries and high energy
      • Coastal plain: low relief, sand dunes and salt marshes present and low energy environments
    • Geological structures
      • e.g. faults and folds
      • Macro scale - coastline/headland
      • Micro - cave
      • Know differences between sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic
      • Definitions of tees-exe line, lithology, strata, bedding planes, joints, folds, faults and a dip.
    • Types of Coastlines
      • Discordant
        • Rock is perpendicular to sea
        • Headlands and bays formed
        • differential rates of erosion
      • Concordant
        • Forms coves
        • rock is parallel to sea
        • same band of rock along a stretch of coastline hence same erosional rates
      • Dalmation
        • long offshore islands and coastal inlets parallel to coastline
      • Haff
        • Lagoons enclosed by long spits of sand parallel to the low lying coast
    • CASE STUDY: The Gower Peninsula
    • Cliff Profiles (see complex cliff diagram)
      • Straight/ concave
      • Curved/ convex
    • Coastal recession and vegetation succession
      • learn formationSand dunes, salt marshes and


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