Ethnic differences in education

  • Created by: meganreed
  • Created on: 19-05-17 09:16
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  • Ethnic Differences in Achievement
    • Cultural deprivation (external)
      • Theory claims that children from low income black families lack intellectual stimulation
      • Bereiter& Engelmann - Language of poorer clack american families is ungrammatical and disjointed - major barrier to educational success.
      • Claimed that those who don't speak English at home will be held back educationally.
      • Fatalism and immediate gratification (lack of motivation to succeed)
      • Lack of male role model (may turn to anti-educational macho 'gang culture')
      • Culture of poverty
      • Sewell - Chinese and  Indian pupils benefit from supportive families with an 'Asian work ethic'
      • Impact of slavery
      • Fathers, gangs and culture (speaking Standard English and doing well at school were seen as 'selling out'
      • Lupton - poorer levels of behaviour and discipline in white w/c pupils (lower levels of parental support and negative attitudes)
      • Evans - white w/c street culture can be brutal and there is a strong pressure to reject education
      • Compensatory education - SureStart, Operation Head Start
      • Criticisms
        • Keddie - 'vicitim blaming'
        • Ball - ethnic minority parents are at a disadvantage because they are less aware of how to negotiate the British education system
        • Compensatory education imposes dominant white middle-class culture on minority ethnic groups pupils' own culture.
    • Material deprivation (external)
      • 1/2 of all minority ethnic children live in low-income families
      • Racial discrimination in jobs and housing -> Social exclusion -> unemployment, low pay, inadequate housing -:> affects children's education
    • Labelling (internal)
      • GILLBORN AND MIRZA - in one area black pupils were highest achievers when entering primary school - when it came to GCSE they had fallen 21 points below average. Schooling to blame not background.
        • 'racialised expectations' (labels) - expected more problems with behaviour - felt their teachers underestimated their their ability ad picked on them
          • Causes under-achievement because: higher levels of black boys being excluded, and black pupils being placed in lower sets/streams
      • WRIGHT - Asian primary schools: teachers assumed children had poor grasp of English, mispronounced names, saw as problem that could be ignored.
        • CONNOLLY - teachers and students saw Asian boys being treated as more feminine, vulnerable and less able to protect themselves.
    • Pupil subcultures (internal)
      • SEWELL - black boys adopted a range of respones to teachers racist labelling of being rebellious and anti-school
        • Conformist, Innovators, retreatists, Rebels (small but highly visible, 'black macho lad', aimed to achieve street status)
        • Despite on small minority fitting 'black macho lad' teachers tended to see them all this way. resulted in underachievement of many boys, not just rebels
        • Argues - external factors: peer groups, street culture and lack of nurturing father are more important in producing underachievement than internal factors.
      • Studies show that not all pupils who are negatively labelled accept/ conform to label. FULLER - high-achieving year 11 black girls, MAC AN GHIALLS - black and Asian 'A' level students
    • Institutional racism (internal)
      • Critical Race Theory (CRT) - institutional racism is deep-rooted feature in education
      • Ethnocentric curriculum - TROYNA AND WILLIAMS: gives priority to white culture and English Language. DAVID: curriculum is 'specifically British' that teaches culture of 'host community'. BALL: ignores history of Black and Asian pupils.
      • GILLBORN - Selections and segregation, Assessment, TIKLY AND STRAND - Access to opportunities. THE NEW IQism


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