exercise physiology

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  • Exercise physiology
    • Muscular-skeletal system
      • Muscular system
        • There are three types of muscle in the body: smooth muscle – found in the internal organs and blood vessels - this is involuntary cardiac muscle – found only in the heart - this is involuntary skeletal muscle – attached to the skeleton - this is voluntary
        • There are two different types of skeletal muscles: slow twitch, also known as type I - oxidative & fast twitch, also known as type II - glycolytic
        • Muscular contractions are defined as the change in the length of the muscle under contraction. Muscles contract in different ways to produce a range of movements:
        • muscles work in 'antagonistic muscle pairs'. One muscle of the pair contracts to move the body part, the other muscle in the pair then contracts to return the body part back to the original position
      • Skeletal system
        • Functions of the skeletal system: Movement, support + protection, production of red blood cells, mineral storage & attachment of muscles.
        • A joint is a place where two or more bones meet and is also called an articulation.
        • Different types of synovial joints allow varying degrees of movement. These include: hinge, pivot & ball + socket.
        • Different types of movement: Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction & rotation.
        • The muscular system works in conjunction with the skeleton to produce movement of the limbs and body.Ligaments and tendons are two main types of connective tissues that help the muscular-skeletal system produce movements.
    • Short & long term effects of exercise
      • Short term effects
        • Increased temperature: Heat is a by product of respiration, so exercise = heat. Higher intensity = hotter. This causes sweat and look 'redder'. Blood vessels under the skin VASOCDILATE to help lose heat and regulate body temperature.
        • Increased heart rate: When exercising the body needs more blood--> to supply o2 to working muscles. The heart therefore contracts faster + more powerfully. Leeds to an increase in stroke volume + cardiac output.
        • Increased  tidal volume (air inspired and expired). When exercising aerobically the muscles need more o2. This increase allows gaseous exchange to occur at a faster rate.
        • Occurs immediately after exercising
      • Long term effects
        • Blood pressure decreases as the heart is working more efficiently. Red blood cell numbers increase& so more o2 can be carried to working muscles.
        • Decrease in recovery time Over months or years + improves performance & general health.
        • Cardiac hypertrophy: Size increases so muscular strength & endurance increases. Muscle walls (particularly left ventricle) thicken. Leads to decrease in resting heart rate.
        • Vital capacity increases. (aerobic lung capacity).
        • Tendons and ligaments become stronger, thicker & more elastic. Less chance of injury. Bone density imrpoves.


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