Experimental Design

  • Created by: 0045253
  • Created on: 01-06-22 13:33
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  • Experimental Design
    • Independent Groups Design
      • Each participant is tested in only one condition.
      • STRENGTH
        • No order effects because participants are taking part in only one condition.
      • WEAKNESS
        • No control of individual differences (participant variables) this means differences between conditions may be caused by using different people rather than the IV.
      • CONTROLS
        • Randomisation: Ppts are randomly allocated to their condition.
    • Repeated Measures Design
      • The same participant is used in both conditions and is involved in each task and tested more than once so each participant acts as their own control.
      • STRENGTH
        • Participant variables are eliminated as each participant acts as their own control. 
      • WEAKNESS
        • Order effects – E.g. fatigue and boredom may lead to poorer performance or practice may lead to improved performance.
      • CONTROLS
        • Counterbalancing: Order effects can be controlled through counterbalancing. It ensures that each condition is tested first and second in equal amount.
        • Randomisation: Order effects can also be controlled through randomisation. Participants must be randomly allocated to the different experimental conditions to prevent any bias in the results.
    • Matched Pairs Design
      • Participants are matched as closely as possible with another participant on variables related to the research aim. 
        • The assumption is that they can be treated as if they were the same person, this means the researcher can conclude that changes in the DV are a result of the IV and not due to participant differences.
      • STRENGTH
        • No order effects. Good way of controlling and reducing participant variables.
      • WEAKNESS
        • Time consuming to match participants exactly.   More participants required than repeated measures as participants only take part in one condition.
      • CONTROLS
        • Randomisation: Members of each pair are allocated randomly to conditions, so each participant performs in one condition only.


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