Exploring Oceans 5. How have socio-economic and political factors influenced the use of the oceans?

  • Created by: DanBish
  • Created on: 08-05-22 23:11
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  • How have socio-economic and political factors influenced the use of the oceans?
    • Oceans have been and continue to be vital elements in the process of globalisation.
      • Principle shipping routes
        • East-West corridor links NA, EU, and PA through the Suez Canal, the Strait of Malacca, and the Panama Canal
        • Major route extends from EU to eastern SA.
        • Secondary routes, such as between Brazil and SA
      • Ocean trade
        • Ocean trade connects producers and consumers of raw materials and manufactured goods
        • Market size exerts a strong influence on the volume of shipping visiting a port
        • Income levels are significant, as they affect the ability to purchase goods
        • Type of goods traded influence the volume and direction of ocean trade
        • Clear patterns of trade in crude oil, mineral ores and agricultural products
    • Oceans present hazardous obstacles to human activities.
      • Piracy
        • Piracy is the act of boarding any vessel with intent to commit theft, or any other crime, and with an intent or capacity to use force in furtherance of that act
        • Rise of piracy as of the rise in trans-continental shipping
        • Pirates tend to attack large vessels, such as bulk carriers, container, and cargo ships
        • Seasonal pattern to piracy in the western Indian ocean - less incidents in the monsoon seasons
        • A substantial maritime coalition involving the EU, NATO, the USA, Japan, and South Korea patrolled the most vulnerable areas
      • Ocean routes for refugees
        • A refugee is a person who owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion, is outside the country of his or her nationality
        • Refugees head towards the Medi-terranean from several countries in sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East, and NA to Europe
        • Global governance is playing an increasing role in dealing with causes and con-sequences of migration
        • Different countries are putting in methods to monitor refugees, and stop them illegally entering
    • Oceans are important spaces where countries challenge each other
      • Marine conflict zone - South China sea
        • China claims most of the ocean as defined by the "9-dash-line"
        • For centuries, various countries have argued and fought over territory in the South China Sea
        • Vietnam disputes China's claims, and Taiwan mirrors China's claim
        • The attractions of the islands include reserves of oil and gas under the sea bed, and passing trade routes
      • China's naval strongholds
        • Naval bases exist in different countries, allowing the navy to operate further away from home - blue water navy
        • China has been a naval power for centuries
        • Significant investment in recent years, as of China's emerging role both regionally in Asia and the Pacific, but also globally
        • Economic strength and increasing technological expertise are allowing the Chinese navy to expand and modernise at a rapid rate
        • The spread of Chinese naval power in the Indian Ocean is a concern for India
          • Potential Chinese naval bases are in countries like Pakistan, which India doesn't have good relations
        • 4 primary domestic naval ports, covering the north, central and southern stretches of coastline


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