Issue 3

  • Created by: Tashaa97
  • Created on: 06-05-15 09:25
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  • Issue 3
    • British Psychological Society (BPS)
      • They have drawn up guidelines for research on human p's to protect them and their rights.
      • The Ethical Principles for Conducting Research with Human Participants (2000) is often used by universities, colleges, and hospitals who have ethical committees approve or reject research.
      • The Code of Ethics and Conduct (2009) is based on four ethical principles: respect, competence, responsibility and integrity.
      • Evaluation
        • There not universal so different countries have different sets of guidelines with human P's, so it's not a clear set of guidelines across the board, which again can cause confusion.
        • There is also limited sope as they only look at certain aspects of protecting people e.g. Gale (1995) says that ethical issues go beyond confidentiality and deception. This is important because some rights of humans may be missed out.
        • There only guidelines so can be seen as too vague and difficult to apply, which can create "loopholes". This is important because humans may be at risk.
        • Protection depends on the committee as some ethical committees are more effective than others in protecting human P's. But the guidelines are revised regularly to keep pace with social change.
    • Ethical Committees
      • Every institution where research takes place has an ethical committee and the committee must approve any study before it begins.
      • it looks at all possible ethical issues raised in any research proposal and at how the researcher suggests that issues will be dealt with, weighing up the benefits of the research against the possible costs to the P's
      • But cost-benefit decisions are flawed because they involve subjective judgments and the costs are not always apparent until after the study. The cost-benefit approach may raise more problems than it solves.
    • Dealing with Ethical Issues
      • Debriefing
        • Can be used to deal with deception, whereby at the end of the experiment P's are told the real purpose of the research and can withdraw their data from the findings as a means of experiencing their control.
        • Milgram debriefed his P's and he said that they weren't harmed by the deception as 74% of the P's said they were glad they had taken part but this is debatable.
      • Presumptive Consent
        • Can be used to deal with deception, where opinions from members of the public that match the criteria of actual P's are sought on how acceptable the experiment is.
        • if these people think that it would be acceptable to take part, then it is presumed that the P's would feel the same way. Milgram used this method with a group of psychiatrists and his students.
        • But they are not the actual P's  and being in the real situation can provoke unexpected or different reactions.


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