Functionalist - Subcultural strain theories - coward and ohlin

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  • Functionalist - Cloward and Ohlin - subcultural strain theories
    • They agree that working-class youths are defined legitimate opportunities to achieve and their deviance stems from how they deal with the situation
    • They identify Three types of deviant subcultures;
      • Criminal subculture
        • Provide youths with an apprenticeship for a career in utilitarian crimes.
        • Arise only in cultures with an established hierarchy of professional adult crime
      • Conflict subculture
        • Arise in areas of high population turnover
        • Results in high levels of social disorganisation and prevents a stable professional criminal network developing
      • Retreatist subculture
        • Not everyone who aspires to be a professional criminal or gang leader actually succeeds
        • These people may turn to illegal drug use
    • Evalutation
      • Strengths
        • develops mertons and cohens theory
        • give reason into working class delinquency
      • Criticisms
        • they assume everyone starts off following the same values and mainstream success goals
        • miller
          • lower class has its own independent subculture with its own values
        • Matza
          • Most delinquents are not strongly committed to their subculture, they drift in and out of deliqency
    • Recent strain theories
      • Institutional anomie theory - Messner and Rosenfield
        • Focus on the american dream
          • people are encouraged to adopt an 'anything goes' mentality
          • the obsession with money success pressures people towards crime


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