Gender Internal vs External

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  • Gender and Education (Part 1)
    • External
      • Feminism
        • Feminism has improved women's expectation of themselves and their self esteem.
        • This, in turn is raising the standards of education as girls are now both family and career ambitious.
      • Changing Family Roles
        • How has family changed over the last 40 years?
          • There have been increases in divorce, cohabitation and lone parent families.
            • How does this link to gender attainment?
              • More women are becoming breadwinners, therefore women need well paid jobs and good qualifications.
              • Increase in divorce shows that women no longer need to rely on men and they will realise the importance of education.
      • Changes in Employment
        • Equal Pay Acts (1970)
          • Pay gap between men and women has halved since 1975.
        • Women in employment has risen by 67% in 2013
        • Glass ceiling is breaking
        • Declining opportunities for men.
        • However in society women are still seen as a reserve army of labour, this was seen in the 2008 recession where women were effected more than men.
        • Women still have dual burden
          • However in society women are still seen as a reserve army of labour, this was seen in the 2008 recession where women were effected more than men.
      • Changing Ambitions
        • Sue Sharpe (1994) interviewed girls in the 1970's and 1990's to show changing ambitions in women.
          • 1970's: Early stereotyping made girls attitude towards education as quite negative. All they wanted was to find love and have children
          • 1990's: Girls were more likely to prioritise education over love and marriage. Girls were also achieving more academically due to the stress of gender equality.
    • Internal
      • Equal Opportunity
        • Liberal Feminists have had a major impact on education,  they have become more gender aware and teachers are now sensitive to stereotyping
        • GIST and WISE - Focused on getting girls into male dominated subjects
        • Introduction of National Curriculum in the Education Reform Act removed one source of gender inequality as boys and girls study the same subjects
      • Positive Role Models
        • There has been an increase in female teachers and head teachers therefore there are more female role models in schools
        • It also gives ambitions to women showing that they can reach higher positions and giving them non-traditional goals to work for.
      • GCSE's and Coursework
        • Changes in assessments have favored girls over boys.
          • Although this helped girls in education it put boys at a disadvantage as they are now under acheiving
        • Vocationalism has also further enhanced the gap through the introduction of coursework based qualifications
        • Mitsos and Browne (1998) support this view as the recognize that girls are more contentious and have better organization skills
      • Teacher Attention
        • French and French (1993) analyzed classroom interaction and found boys achieved more reprimands and attracted more attention
        • Swann (1998) found that boys  dominate the entire class whereas girls prefer paired work as they have better listening skills.
      • Challenging Stereotypes
        • It is argued that removing stereotypes from textbooks etc. improves girls acheivement
        • Research within the 70s and 80s demonstrated the portrayal of women as housewives an mothers and in physics textbooks women were scared of science and math's whereas boys were more intensive.
      • Selection and League Tables
        • Marketization has created a competitive market for schools - girls are more desirable because of their exam results
        • Jackson (1998) saw the improved opportunities for girls and the opportunity to create a self fulfilling prophecy between high achieving girls and low achieving boys
      • Feminism
        • Liberal Feminists: Celebrate the progress made by girls and will continue with the development of equal opportunity policies and encouragement of external factors
        • Radical Feminists: They know girls are achieving more however they believe the system is still patriarchal


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