Geography A-Level - Physical - Climate Change

  • Created by: Noah_S
  • Created on: 16-06-21 16:16
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  • Climate Change
    • Impacts
      • On the Water & Carbon Cycle
        • Positive Feedback Loops
          • As temperatures rise, evaporation increases, so more water vapour trapping heat is put into the atmosphere, increasing temperatures
          • As temperatures rise, plant respiration rate increases, putting more carbon into the atmosphere, increasing temperatures
        • Negative Feedback Loops
          • As there is more atmospheric carbon, more plants grow which remove atmospheric carbon and stores it, reducing the amount of carbon in the atmosphere
          • As temperatures rise, evaporation increases, increasing the amount of clouds forming which deflects energy from the sun, reducing temperatures
      • On the Earth
        • Climate
          • The pattern of precipitation is expected to change - Wet areas are expected to get wetter while dry areas are about to get drier
          • Extreme weather events, such as tropical storms, are expected to get more intense and frequent
            • Less developed countries will be the worst affected
          • Agricultural productivity will decrease in some areas, which leads to food shortages
        • Life
          • Sea levels are expected to rise further, flooding coastal and low-lying areas and ecosystems
          • Geographical range of some species will change, which could introduce new species into an ecosystem and damage it
          • Plankton numbers may decline if temperatures increase, which will have a knock-off effect on marine food chains
    • Responses
      • National
        • Governments can reduce their reliance on fossil fuels for heating homes and providing electricity by increasing the use of renewable energy
        • Afforestation and restoring damaged forests can increase the carbon uptake by the biosphere
        • Governments can invest in carbon capture and storage, like carbon sequestration, which removes atmospheric carbon and puts it into the lithosphere
      • Individual
        • People can make existing things more energy efficient, like using double glazing and insulation for their homes
        • People can choose to use transport or products that have a smaller carbon footprint
      • International
        • Kyoto Protocol (1997)
          • The Kyoto Protocol aimed to reduce the emission of 6 GHG's of a country to acceptable levels
          • 192 parties had signed the protocol and the first commitment period was between 2008 - 2012, where all 36 countries that fully participated complied with the protocol
          • However, global emissions still increased by 32% from 1990 to 2010
        • Paris Agreement (2015)
          • The Paris Agreement aimed to keep the increase of global temperatures to below 2*C above pre-industrial levels
          • It also pursued efforts to limit the increase to 1.5*C by reducing emissions as soon as possible
          • 189 parties signed the agreement, however it allowed countries to form their own plans instead of having a set target, and none of the major industrialised countries implemented policies in 2017
        • International carbon trading schemes are introduced, which gives a limit on the emissions they can produce - given rewards if below the target, and fines if above


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