Geography A-Level - Physical - Storm Hazards

  • Created by: Noah_S
  • Created on: 31-05-21 12:41
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  • Storm Hazards
    • Case Study - Haiyan
      • Impacts
        • Huge storm surges (up to 6m high) responsible for killing 8000 people (Social)
        • $2.9 Billion worth in damage, with 5.6 Million jobs lost (Economic)
          • Led to widespread looting in Tacloban (Social)
        • Damaged water supply led to an outbreak of diseases like Dysentery (Environment)
      • Responses
        • Satellite monitoring led 800,000 to evacuate from the region (Short Term)
        • Many countries + Charities helped relief effort via S&R teams and aid (Short Term)
        • 'Cash for Work' schemes implemented in Tacloban to help rebuild (Short Term)
        • Charities helped build storm-resistant houses (Long Term)
      • Pre-Disaster
        • Made landfall in the Philippines, near a major city called Tacloban
        • Many Filipinos have moved into large cities, building poorly constructed houses nearest to the sea, which is a dangerous area to Tropical Storms
        • Category 5 Tropical Storm, with strong winds of over 250 kph
    • Case Study - Katrina
      • Impacts
        • Massive storm surges (up to 10m) destroyed 110,000 out of 180,000 homes (Social + Economic)
        • 1242 people died to the storm, but not many after due to US infrastructure + 1 Million became displaced (Social)
        • Many businesses were affected in New Orleans + Oil Rigs in Gulf Coast being damaged meant oil prices shot up (£1 per litre in UK) (Economic)
          • Famous French Quarter was damaged, reducing tourism (Economic)
      • Pre-Disaster
        • New Orleans hadn't been hit with a Catagory 5 storm before
        • Much of the levee system was not up to modern standards, with the replacement only being 60-90% completed
          • Flood defences were breached, submerging 80% of the city during the Hurricane
      • Responses
        • Most of the population evacuated due to warnings (Short Term)
        • US Senate provided $10.5 Billion in aid + Additional $51.8 the next week (Short Term)
        • Government criticised because majority affected were African Americans (Long Term)
          • President Bush criticized for being slow to visit the affected area (Long Term)
    • General Theory
      • Hazards
        • Storm Surges
          • A large rise in sea level caused by high winds pushing water at the coast
        • High Winds
          • Wind speeds can reach more than 300kph
        • Heavy Rain & Flooding
          • Warm, moist air rises and condenses, which can cause river discharges to increase suddenly
      • Distribution & Structure
        • Formation
          • The sea water needs to be above 27*C for at least 50m below the surface
          • Needs to be a disturbance near the sea-surface (e.g. an area of low pressure)
          • Needs to have a convergence of air in the lower atmosphere, so warm air rises
          • Be at least 5* from the Equator, so the Coriolis effect is strong enough
        • Structure
          • Hundreds of kilometres wide in a circular shape
          • At the centre there is an area of very low pressure called the eye, with rising air spirals around called the eye wall, causing strong winds
        • Distribution
          • They happen mainly between the tropics (23* N/S), and move westwards
          • Occurs in the Caribbean Sea (Hurricanes), Bay of Bengal (Cyclones), China Sea (Typhoons) and Northern Australia
      • Impacts
        • Secondary
          • Lack of clean water causes diseases to spread
          • Agricultural land is damaged, affecting commercial farming
        • Primary
          • People are injured or killed by debris that's blown around or carried in flood water
          • Destruction of buildings and infrastructure from colliding with debris
          • Beaches are eroded and coastal habitats are damaged


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