German Society Groups 28.11.22

  • Created by: mollycha
  • Created on: 22-11-22 13:16
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  • German Society Groups:    18171-1918
    • working class
      • not unified because gender divide in employment with women
        • problems between religions Protestant vs Catholic and Skilled vs Unskilled
      • WC life= overcrowded, dependent on children's incomes, most of wages spent on food, died earlier than rich
      • lockouts very common:1910 250,000 workers were victims of 1000 lockouts
      • strikes increased: 200,000 workers on average annually from 1905-13
        • 1914= 3 million TU members
        • SPD had 1 mil members and was largest socialist group in world
      • little social mobility: couldn't afford expensive education so sent kids to work instead
    • Bourgeoisie
      • were main beneficiaries of industrialisation: Krupps who became an elite
      • doctors, professors,lawyers became increasingly wealthy and could afford holidays
      • some tried to marry Junkers but rare
    • elites
      • elites and bourgeoisie both feared organised labour as it threatened domestic stability
      • wilhelmine period was golden age for elites
      • prominent within society: people respected social hierachy
      • prussian ministers/Junkers dominated political scene and protected their own interests
    • lower middle class
      • white collar workers (clerks, civil servants, small shopkeepers)
      • paid more than WC and had higher aspirations for kids
      • university enrolments from 23,000 in 1875 to 72,000 in 1912
    • women
      • most WC women had to work to support their families
      • 1.25mil female domestic servants by 1907 which was the same as 1882
      • more women in clerical and industrial jobs
        • abortion was illegal
      • single MC women could train as teachers and by 1899 women could get medical qulifiications
      • remained inferior on law to husband = legal guardian of wife
      • few went to university
      • double standard in sexual morality
      • by 1914= females were more publicly active in work, politics =mainly MC women with opportunities
    • military
      • had important place in society due to role in unification
      • prussian dominance
      • oath of personal loyalty to Kaiser not the state
      • conscription was 3 years until it was reduced to 2 in 1893


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