Germany 1890-1945 (2)

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  • Germany 1890-1945 (2)
    • The Weimar Constitution
      • A set of rules deciding how Germany should be governed
        • Made in 1919
      • All men and women over 21 would be able to vote
      • There would be a parliament known as the Reichstag
      • Chancellor would be responsible for the day-to-day running of the country
        • They would appoint the President
          • President could rule without the Reichstag with Article 38
      • Proportional representation led to weak coalition governments that were slow to make decisions
    • Violent uprisings
      • Kapp Putsch
        • Led by Wolfgang Kapp in 1920 - he wanted Kaiser back
        • Freikorps captured Berlin and government fled to Dresden
        • Government was defenceless so ordered a general strike - shows support of the people
        • Showed how weak the government was.
          • They could not punish Kapp or Freikorps and relied on the public
      • Munich Putsch
        • Led by Hitler and the Nazi party - Nov. 1923
          • Attempt to take over Germany
        • They captured Kahr in a Beer Hall and forced him to 'support' their march on Munich
        • Kahr escaped and alerted the police, so they were ready for Nazis and defeated them
        • Hitler was arrested and imprisoned - only served 9 months of his 5 yr sentence and gained publicity from trial
      • Spartacist Rising
        • By the KPD, led by Rosa Luxembourg & Karl Liebknecht
        • Tried to overthrow government but they called the Freikorps due to weak army
        • Freikorps killed >3k communists and leaders of uprising
        • Showed up weak gov. because they relied on Freikorps
        • Led to hatred between SPD and KPD so they are low to cooperate against Nazi threat
      • 350 Weimar politicians were assassinated from 1918-1923
        • The killers were not properly punished, proving the weakness of the Weimar government
    • Hyperinflation
      • 1923 - nearly destroyed economy
      • Causes
        • Couldn't afford reparations
        • Government ordered a strike (passive resistance)
        • Printed money to pay French and striking workers
      • Effects
        • People lost their savings
          • Made Weimar unpopular
        • Those on fixed incomes had extreme poverty
        • Those in debt could pay it off quickly
        • Farmers and those with goods could barter - profit
          • The whole problem was solved by Stresemann (Chancellor)
            • Took old currency out of use and made the Rentenmark
              • Made a deal with France and Belgium so they would leave the Ruhr


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