Germany 1890-1945 (4)

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  • Germany 1890-1945 (4)
    • Hitler consolidating his power
      • Limited power - only 3 Nazis out of the cabinet of 11
        • Only 32% of seats so needed a majority to pass laws
      • Reichstag Fire - Feb 1933
        • Blamed on a communist to reduce KPD support
        • Reichstag Fire Decree stopped civil liberties so they arrested 4000 communists and up to 10k political opponents
      • Enabling Act - March 1933
        • Needed 2/3 of the votes to pass it but only achieved 45%
          • Persuaded Reichstag to pass the Act anyway
        • Allowed him to pass laws without input from Reichstag for 4 years - used to ban other parties/trade unions/local governments
      • The Night of the Long Knives - June 1934
        • As Röhm and Hitler disagreed about the Nazi party
        • Hitler used the ** to kill 1k opponents inc. Röhm to remove rivals
      • When Hindenburg died in Aug 1934, Hitler became Fuhrer and made army swear oath of loyalty
    • Nazi terror
      • Gestapo
        • A network of informers so it relied on fear - there were not many Gestapo but they could be anyone
      • Police and court were Nazis so they targeted non-Nazis and overlooked Nazi crime
      • ** (run by Himmler) ran concentration camps for those who were disloyal
        • ** killed 500k Germans
        • Formed Einsatz-gruppen during WWII (squads of soldiers who shot over 1mil Jews)
          • Formed Death Head Units to run extermination camps in WWII
      • Terror was a key reason for Nazi dominance as opponents risked a lot
        • Any opponent must be in small, secret groups
    • The Nazis and Youth
      • Prepare boys and girls for their future roles as soldiers or mothers
        • This showed in the subjects they studied in school
      • All children studied eugenics to learn about Jews and the Aryan race
        • In other subjects, Nazi views were promoted and Jews were humiliated
      • Hitler Youth
        • Membership made compulsory in 1936 - 9mil members by 1939
        • Camps and boxing, helped defend Berlin in WWII
        • 1 in 10 refused to join




what is **

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