Germany Bismarck Politics 28.11.22

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  • Created on: 28-11-22 09:39
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  • Germany: Bismarck Political
    • German unification in 1871 due to two key wars with Austria and Franco-Prussian war
    • constitution
      • written to maintain prussian rule and dominance
        • Prussia had 60% of population and 2/3 territory
        • had 3 class franchise system
      • kaiser had ultimate power
      • chancellor always Prussian/ proposed new laws/ only responsible to kaiser
      • reichstag power to pass laws/set budget
      • bundesrat made of representation from each state/prussian dominance had 17 seats but need 14 for veto
    • wilhelm I basically pointless as didn't care enough and left it mostly to Bismarck
    • 1871-79 Liberal Era
      • Bismarck was a Junker not a Liberal
      • alliance of convenience as they were the biggest party with 125 seats
        • could pass laws easily
      • joint aims of further unification and both against Catholics
      • together they passed over 100 laws to further unification
        • universal weights and mesaures
        • extending railways
        • single currency
      • 1874 army budget = area of compromise =wanted army budget out of Reichstag control but Liberals wanted it discussed more often
        • Septennial Laws= discussed every 7 years
      • 1874 Press Laws= reaction to army budget =passed even though Libs were for freedom of speech =punish writers for criticising gov
    • Kulturkampf
      • WHY?
        • Papal Infaliability 1871
        • catholic  centre party was growing with 91 seats in 1874
        • catholic strongest in the south which was last to unify
      • WHAT?
        • catholic schools came under state control
        • priests had to train in Germany
        • births, marriages and deaths had to be registered by the state not the church
        • attack started in 1972 but increased in 1873 with May/Falk Laws
      • RESULTS
        • centre party grew with 94 seats in 1878
        • conservatives and protestants were angry as saw it as anti-religious
        • Bismarck wanted better relations with catholic Austria
        • new Pope
        • socialism now bigger threat
    • The Great Change
      • Catholics --> Socialists
      • Liberals --> Centre
      • Free Trade     --> Protectionism
    • Bismarck's Fall
      • Wilhelm II wanted more personal rule
      • Bismarck and Wilhelm  fell out as B wanted more anti-socialist laws but W wanted to be king of people
      • fell out over whether they should have closer ties with Russia or Austria


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