Global Migration 2. Why has migration become increasingly complex?

  • Created by: DanBish
  • Created on: 06-05-22 00:33
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  • Why has migration become increasingly complex?
    • Global migration patterns are influenced by a multitude of interrelated factors
      • High concentration of young workers and female migrants
        • In many places, female migrants outweigh males, as greater importance of women as income earners
        • Economic pull factors are the main reason for young workers migrating
      • Flows in South-South corridors are now equal in magnitude to those in South-North corridors
        • Restrictive barriers for migrants from South entering North
        • Increasing employment in South
        • Improved commu-nications across South increases awareness of opportunities
        • Increased number of refugees fleeing conflict in the South
        • Expensive moving to distant, rich countries
      • Conflict and persecution have increased numbers of refugees
        • Worldwide refugees increased from 15.7million in 2012 o 19.5 million in 2014
        • Syria has overtaken Afghanistan in total number of refugees
      • Changes in national immigration and emigration policies
        • Migration policies are designed to meet the economic, social + political needs of a country
        • Policies may be points-based, to favour shortages in the labour market, or actively encourage emigration to capitalise on migrant remittances
      • Development of distinct corridors of bi-lateral flows.
        • Bilateral migration is the migrant flow between two countries
        • Explanations of these corridors include: Language; Costs of travel; ease of access + commu-nication; efficiency of sending remittances, wage differentials, established diaspora networks; migration policies
    • Corridors of migrant flows create inter-dependence between countries - EDC Study - Brazil
      • Current patterns of immigration and emigration
        • Net migration loss of 0.5 million/yr
        • Slowing of migration of lower skilled migrants to the USA
        • Influx of migrants from Haiti and African countries
        • Rise in international labour migrants (due to the construction industry during 2014 World Cup and 2016 Olympics)
      • Changes in immigration and emigration over time
        • Late 19thC Europeans and Japanese to Brazil for agriculture
        • Immigration into Brazil slowed over last 15 years
        • Emigration has increased
      • Economic, political, social and environmental inter-dependence with countries connected to the EDC by migrant flows
        • Bilateral relationship; Former colony of Portugal; Economic migrants use Portugal as gateway to EU; Shared language, ancestry + family ties; Social diaspora networks in both countries; Migrant remittances important 
        • Humanitarian relationship developed with Brazil makes obtaining VISA easy; Migrants fleeing natural disaster benefit from this; Many move to join friends and relatives in ES Brazil; Most end up in low skilled jobs in agriculture or factories
        • Thousands of low-skilled migrants working in USA; Migrant remittances; Returning migrants bring skills and knowledge; High skilled workers find opportunities in USA; Strong links in education and teacher training; Political agreements; USAID provides environmental project support
      • The impact of migration on the EDCs economic development, political stability and social equality
        • Economic development - Gaps in labour market reduced by arrival of professionals; growth of agriculture as immigration from Japan, Portugal, Germany
        • Political stability - Promoted through membership to Mercosur; Important receiver of regugees
        • Social equality - Poverty concentrated in rural areas; Prejudice in labour market


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