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  • Immunity
    • Defence mechanisms
      • Specific
        • DO distinguish between pathogens.
        • Less rapid response but long lasting.
        • Involves white blood cells called lymphocytes.
        • Cell-mediated involving T lymphocytes.
        • Humoral response involving B lymphocytes.
      • Non-specific
        • Do NOT distinguish between pathogens but responds in the same way.
        • Act IMMEDIATLY
        • A barrier to pathogens and phagocytosis.
      • Lymphocytes
        • White blood cells
        • Over 10 million different types.
        • Proteins on surface have complimentary to shape to proteins on pathogens.
        • T lymphocytes  involved in cell-mediated immunity, mature in the thymus gland.
        • B lymphocytes involved in humoral immunity, mature in the bone marrow.
      • How lymphocytes recognise own cells.
        • In fetus lymphocytes collide with own cells, those who have receptors that fit those of the body die so the only remaining ones respond to non-self material.
    • Phagocytosis
      • Phagocyte is attracted to pathogen by chemoattractants
        • The phagocyte binds to the pathogen
          • Phagocyte engulf pathogen forming a vesicle called a phagosome.
            • Lysosomes migrate towards the phagosome and fuse with it.
              • Lysosomes produce lytic enzymes which break down the pathogen
                • Soluble products from the pathogen are absorbed into the phagocyte.
    • Barriers to entry
      • Protective covering - the skin creates continuous layer which is hard to penetrate.
      • Epithelia covered in mucus - pathogens stick to mucus and are destoryed.
      • Hydrochloric acid in the stomach - enzymes of pathogens are denatured.
    • Cell -mediated immunity
      • T lymphocytes respond to an organisms own cells which have been invaded by non-self material
      • Only respond to antigens that are attached to a body cell.
      • Respond to  a virus, cancer cell or transplanted material.
      • Antigen presenting cells - able to present antigens from other organisms on its surface.
      • How lymphocytes distinguish between invader and normal cells.
        • Phagocytes present antigens from pathogens on their surface.
        • Invaded cells present antigens on their surface.
        • Cancer cells present antigens on their surface.
      • Pathogen enters body or taken in by phagocytosis, receptors on T helper cells fit the antigens, activates other T cells to divide by mitosis, clone either...
        • Develop into memory cells
        • Stimulate phagocytes
        • Stimulate B cells
        • Kill infected cells
      • How  T cells kill infected cells
        • Produce protein which creates holes in cell surface membrane.
        • Cell becomes freely permeable to substances and die.
    • Antigens
      • Any part of an organism which is considered non-self and triggers an immune response.
      • Proteins on the surface of pathogens.
    • Humoral immunity
      • Involves antibodies
      • Occurs in blood and tissue fluid.
      • Untitled




Good use of colour to separate the key ideas.This  Mind Map is well organised and forms a useful summary of the different responses of the body in terms of the immune response. It would be a good idea to add images of the cells involved as this can make a map more memorable. This would be useful for all students studying immunology at A level.

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