Inequality: Marxism

  • Created by: nelliott
  • Created on: 02-06-22 13:10
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  • Inequality: Marxism
    • Age
      • Gramsci
        • People don't realise how the bourgeoise exploit people, as the elderly & youth depend on institutions to gain money, e.g., pensions & 0-hour contracts
      • Engels
        • Reserve army of labour, 0-hour contracts
      • Townsend & Phillipson
        • Political economy theory - the elderly are positioned as a burden to the economy
    • Gender
      • Engels
        • Argued that under capitalism men gained control over women as they wanted to pass on private property in the form of inheritance from one generation to the next
      • Benston
        • The wife keeps husband in good order to benefit capitalism
    • Ethnicity
      • Cox
        • Stressed that 'race' is a human creation. It has its origins in capitalism & colonialism. Also, if racism is developed to justify exploitation, it cannot be developed by those who are exploited.
        • Criticism: 'Race blind' - racism may benefit capitalism in the long term, but there is no evidence that it functions exclusively as an ideological apparatus
      • Castles & Kosack
        • Found that immigrant were concentrated in low-skilled and low-paid manual jobs carried out in poor working conditions
        • Criticism: It's a mistake to think all ethnic minorities are disadvantaged e.g., over 5,000 Muslim millionaires in Britain
    • Social Class
      • Class conflict
        • Polarisation of social classes, alienation, economic crisis
      • False class consciousness
        • When the working class realise the nature of their exploitation, they would rise up and overthrow capitalism
      • Gramsci
        • The ruling class rarely need to use force to exert power because they rule through persuasion
      • Braverman
        • Many 'middle class' workers have actually been de-skilled e.g. they are now performed by machines or broken down into simple steps for less skilled workers. Employers can pay them less


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