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  • influenza
    • Virology
      • Envolped
      • negitive sense
      • RNA
      • 7/8 segmengts
        • Each segment of genome= bound to nucleoprotein in a ribonucleoprotein complex
      • pleomorphic
      • 4 subtypes = A,B,C and D
    • epidemiology
      • A = has the largest host range
      • A+B are responsible for human infection
      • nameing
        • A/Sydney/05/97(H3N2)
          • A= virus type
          • sydney = place isolated
          • 05= strain number
          • 97 = year isolated
          • H3N2= subtype
        • Untitled
        • clades
          • after subtyes it can be grouped into clades and subclades
    • virus life cycle
      • binding -HA proteins bind to sialic acid ( except HA17+HA18)
      • Internalisation
        • endosomal, low PH triggers fusion of viral envolope with endosomal membrane
      • uncoating
        • RNPs are released into host cytosol. RNPs transported to the nucleus where mRNA is transcribed
      • Translation
        • Viral polymerase subunits and NP proteins move to the nucleus to form RNPs
      • Assembly and budding
        • HA, NA and M2 proteins trafficked to the cell membrane. RNPs in the nucleus and move to the cytosol then the cell membrane.Virions bud from the cell membrane
    • antigenic shift = intermixing of RNA ( combination of antigens) differnet strains infecting same host
      • Occurs among influenza viruses of the same genus. Most common in IAV
    • Antigenic drift= accumulations of mutation over time
      • Influenza A, then B


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