Ireland under Elizabeth I

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  • Ireland under Elizabeth 1
    • Situation in Ireland when inherited
      • English monarch was the lord of Ireland
        • But direct control was only in 'The Pale'
        • The rest of Ireland was controlled by powerful Gaelic Lords
      • Feudal Lords were split into Normal nobility and Gaelic nobility
        • Norman  nobility were descended from 12th century Norman invaders
          • They intermarried with the Irish and had few English nobility ties
        • Gaelic nobility were descended from Celts from Ireland, Scotland, Wales andCornwall.
      • Ireland became a 'breeding ground for fortune hunters' (John Guy)
        • People who thought they could get rich quick in Ireland
    • Elizabeth's attitude towards Ireland
      • She wanted a policy of 'Englishness' in religious and secular matters in Ireland
      • She was proclaimed Supreme Governor of the Church of Ireland in 1560
        • She lacked the power to impose Protestantism on a Catholic country
    • Rebellions
      • Began mostly because of the fortune hunters and frequent use of martial law which led to bad relations with the feudal lords
        • Rebellions broke out in South ireland in 1569 to 1573 and 1579 to 1582
        • Third rebellion was harder to put down
          • In 1595 the Earl of Tyrone rose up with the Spanish in attempt to exploit the Armada of 1596
            • This was unsuccessful - Spanish involvement caused English unease
              • Rebels were victorious at the Battle of Yellow Ford in 1598
                • Tyrone + allies were now in control of most outside of the Pale.
                  • Seemed as though he might establish an independent Catholic Ireland with Spain's support
                    • Elizabeth sent the Earl of Essex to Ireland as Lord Lieutenant in 1599
                      • He defied the Queen's orders and made a truce with Tyrone
                        • When the truce expire Tyrone moved South near Kinsale on the coast hoping to link up with a Spanish army
                          • Under the leadership of Lord Lieutenant Mountjoy and Sir George Carew the English made good progress.
                            • 3000 Spanish troops landed in Kinsale in Sept 1601, but the English defeated them on Christmas Eve
                              • Mountjoy made a peace treaty with Tyrone in 1603
                                • Tyrone didn't know that by then Elizabeth had died
    • Result of the rebellion
      • Much of Ireland had been destroyed or become impoverished due to conflict
      • The Crown had spent large sums of money
      • Conflict left bitterness amongst the Irish population
      • James I left Ireland to be ruled by the local nobility


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