Issues and Debates - Practical Issues

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  • Practical Issues
    • Sherif
      • The sample involved matching the boys carefully, not only the boys chosen but also when slitting them into two groups
      • It is hard when matching to be sure that all the required variables are considered
      • The boys made decisions during the study, such as when setting up competitions, so they were active in the study
        • This might mean the study is not replicable because if done again things would be different as the situation would differ
      • There is high validity as the ppts did daily tasks
        • However, there was no control group
      • There is low reliability as there were no controls over teh environemnt
      • It lack generalisability as the ppts came from protestant backgrounds in America
    • Baddeley
      • Baddeley wanted to claim cause-and-effect conclusions from his experiments so had to avoid any confounding variables
        • He found one, in that STM was involved in his first experiment though he wanted to study LTM
          • He had to carry out another experiment to take account of this confounding variable
      • He could not be sure that in the different groups there were no individual differences between the ppts
      • The task could be considered as artificial thus reducing validity
      • As it was a lab based experiment there is high reliablity as there is a standardised procedure that was followed
    • Raine
      • They had to match the control group to the experimental group so that comparison in brain functioning could be made
        • Matching on all variables is hard, if not impossible
      • They gave the ppts a task so they were doing something, but the brain is active in all individuals and some might have felt more stress perhaps
        • There might have been differences other than the 'violence' in the 'murders'
      • It is reliable as a PET scan was used which means that the procedure was standardised and scientific
        • This also increases validity as it means that it is accurate to an extent
    • Watson and Rayner
      • As it was a case study it cannot be replicated as well as due to ethical issues
      • Due to Albert being a baby he had limited mobility so the toys had to be brought to him and he had to be moved to different locations
      • There is validity as they changed the environment to a lecture hall before the end of the experiment
      • They were unable to finish the study as Albert was withdrawn by his mother which was an issue
    • Rosenhan
      • There is validity as 8 pseudo patients were given a scropted question to ask staff in each hospital
      • After the pseudo patients were admitted, they behaved like themselves which could hev cause individual differences
      • It was important that the pseudo patients reported hearing voices in the same way so that the findings could be put together and so Rosenhan stuck to people he knew were keen on the study


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