James and foreign polciy

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  • James foreign policy
    • 30 years war
      • in 1618 war broke out when bohemia revolted against their new king (arch duke ferdinand)
        • in 1619 bohemia offered Fredrick of palatinate (james' son in law) the throne and he accepted without consulting james
          • if he accepted then this is another protestant power in Europe, but james was cautious
      • james didnt think rebels should establish kings
      • Fredrick and protestant forces loose the battle fo white mountain and him and his wife flee to the Hague
        • ferdinand invades bohemia in 1619 as holy roman emperor
    • spanish marriage
      • spain were scared england would head a protestant coalition
        • wanted to win him from this and offered concessions like marriage w maria for charles
      • would be startegically better to help the strongest erurpoean power over france who had a 12 year old as king
      • Parliament were unhappy with him for displaying pro-spanish behaviour
      • he was offered 600,000 as a dowry which drew him in
    • Impact of marriage and war on england
      • the fact that frercik was james' sun in law put pressure on him to act
      • he though fred had been stupid accepting the crown, but knew he was the rightful ruler of the palitinate and wanted to get him reinstated as king
      • james thought he could rely on the spanish to use their influence to reinstate him but was mistaken
      • the spanish didnt want england to allie with the danes who they were at war with so held out marriage negotiations
        • he knew they may fail
      • he knew he made need funds to summoned parliament in 1621
    • inherited foreign polcy. what did james want?
      • inherited an anti-spanish, anti catholic policy
      • didnt want war and wanted to make peace
      • a war would make him dependant on parliament
      • Elizabethan policy was no longer workable
    • dynastic marriages
      • planned to use his children to mainatin power in europe
      • wanted a protestant marriage for his daughter and a catholic one for his son henry
        • henry would refused a catholic marriage. when he died this wish would pass onto charles
      • his daughter had a protestant marriage
        • fredrick of palitinate (would come into play later on)
    • arbiter and mediator
      • henry iv widow arranged a marriage with spanish,= catholic power bloc, requiring protestant action
      • wants peace w catholics
      • james was a mediator and negotiator, which gained him respect
    • french alliance
      • henry of France was protestant who became catholic but still supported European protestants
      • wnated alliance with james
      • james was reluctant but agreed to assist henry against spain
    • Mansfield's expedition
      • expesdition run by masifeld, was a disater
      • troops poorly equipped or died of disease
      • achieved nothing
      • wasted £60,000 subsidy in defiance of their instructions
    • trip to Madrid
      • james reluctantly allowed his son and favourite to travel to Madrid in disguise
        • demonstaret charles commitment to the infanta
      • he became essentially a prisoner as spain tried to negotiate
        • james would agree to anything for their return
        • wanted catholic tolerance
      • charles and buck wanted revenge for humiliatiion


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