Theme 3; Key Idea 3

  • Created by: mckenj99
  • Created on: 04-01-18 20:04
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  • Key Idea 3
    • Views from the less developed world
      • Often influenced by Ghandi
        • Every human has the right to feed, clothe and house themselves.
      • Less developed countries saw the solution to poverty not through industrialisation but though encouraging the economic life of villages.
      • Dependency theory and Post-Development both emerged from the developing world.
      • 'Development' in the LDW is seen as the spread of western dominance.
    • Gender and development
      • Until the 1960s it was assumed that development affected both genders in the same way.
        • Growing evidence that women were being left behind
      • Gender relations are seen as important for many working in development.
        • Tackling gender inequality is seen to empower women and contribute to their sense of well-being
    • Eco-feminism
      • In the 1970s women challenged the dominant model of development
        • They saw it as being shaped by masculine values.
      • Development was seen as a violent force against nature
      • Vandana Shiva
    • Views from the developed world
      • Influenced by neo-liberalism and capitalism
      • Joseph Stiglitz
        • Argued that neo-liberalism has failed.
        • Suggested that there must be a balance between markets, governmetns and instituations
          • Evidence to support this view
            • In countries where neo-liberal policies have been applied, development has failed.
            • Countries where the state played a strong role, development was successful.
            • Governments can enhance growth by increasing inclusiveness, e.g. education for all.
    • Bottom-up
      • Bottom-up approaches should:
        • Empower individuals and communities
        • Involve the local community
        • Focus on grassroots forms of knowledge
        • Use appropriate technology
        • Work with local cultures
      • Barefoot college, India
        • Sanjit BunkerRoy
          • In 1965 Roy travelled to Bihar to visit a village for the first time.
          • Thought that the poor were strong enough and proud enough to raise themselves out of poverty
        • College exclusively for the poor
      • Limitations of  bottom-up strategies:
        • Designed to meet basic needs, not increase incomes dramatically.
        • Small scale, have to be  repeated thousands of times
        • Political instability could reverse the gains made.
        • Communities are constantly changing.
        • Some communities face power differences, meaning some members face exclusion
    • Top-down development
      • Decisions being made by governments without direct involvement of the people
      • Large scale projects with are well funded.
      • Advantages
        • Large scale change
        • Can help drive economic growth
      • Disadvantages
        • Fail to meet the needs and wants of communities
        • Not tailored to local conditions
        • City based 'experts'
        • Stereotypes
      • Kerala


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