Language and Diversity Theorists

  • Created by: DanBish
  • Created on: 03-05-22 11:33
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  • Language and Diversity Theorists
    • Language and Occupation
      • Drew and Heritage - Discourse community share frameworks with each other, ways of thinking, communica-ting and behaving. strong hierarchies of power within organisations - asymmetrical relationships
      • John Swales + Discourse communities 1) Has agreed set of common goals, 2) Has communication among its members (jargon), 3) Uses participatory mechanisms to provide info and feedback, 4) Utilises  genres in furthering aims 5) Acquired some specific lexis, 6) Has a level of members with an idea of relevant content and discourse expertise
      • Howard Giles Accommodation Theory - We adjust our speech to accommodate the person we're talking too - Divergence and Convergence, establish relationships with higher ups
    • Language and Accent and Dialect
      • Howard Giles 3 lectures in 3 accents. Scores given based off status, personality and persuasive-ness. Received Pronunciation was first
      • Peter Trudgill - Found that men under-report, women over-report. Women of each class pronounce 'ing' more than men of the same class.
      • Gary Ives Code Switching - Code switching is where speakers alternate between their 1st and 2nd language, often in different social scenarios
    • Language and Gender
      • Robin Lakoff (Deficit Model) - Women tend to: swear less; use more empty adjectives; use more tag questions; speak less; use hyper correct grammar
      • Deborah Tannen (Difference Model) - Men seek  to achieve the upper hand - stop people dominating them; whereas women form bonds, trying to avoid conflict
      • Pamela Fishman (dominance model) - She found women ask three times as many questions as men, and work hard to keep conversation going, whereas men speak twice as long as women
    • Language and Technology
      • David Crystal 'Textisms' - Deleted vowels to type quicker (text -> txt); Phonetic Spelling to reduce word count (you -> u); Contraction, or shortening words (going to -> gonna)
      • Schegloff phone talk patterns - Summons-answer, caller summons called person, called person picks up phone; Identification-recognition: person identifies him/herself and recognises other; Greetings-greetings: people exchange mutual greetings.
    • Language and Power
      • Erving Goffman Politeness  - Positive Face - Universal need for appreciation; Negative Face -  Universal need for independence; Face-threating act - Threatens someone  faces; politeness strategies - ways speaker can avoid threatening face
      • Paul Grice 4 Maxims - Quantity- An appropriate amount of detail; Quality - speaking truth, not misleading; Relevance - Keeping discussed topics relevant to topic; Manner - Avoiding vagueness and ambiguity
      • Norman Fairclough - Power in discourse - ways power manifested in situations; Power behind discourse - focus on social + ideological reasons in enactment of power


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