Language and Power Theory + Theorists

  • Created by: DanBish
  • Created on: 12-05-22 20:28
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  • Language and Power
    • Theorists
      • Erving Goffman - Politeness
        • Positive Face - Universal need for appreciation
        • Negative Face -  Universal need for independence
        • Face-threating act - Threatens someone  faces
        • Politeness strategies - Ways speaker can avoid threatening face
      • Norman Fairclough
        • Power in discourse - Ways power manifested in situations
        • Power behind discourse - Focus on social + ideological reasons in enactment of power
      • Deborah Cameron - Political correctness
        • Ensuring that in society we as individuals use terms that are deemed as political correct.
        • Not using the phrase 'the fat controller' as that is stated as politically incorrect
    • Theories
      • Types of Power
        • Political power - Power held by those with the backing of the law
        • Personal power -  Power held by individuals as a result of their roles in organisations
        • Social group power - Power held as a result of being a member of a dominant social group
        • Instrumental power - Power used to maintain and enforce authority
        • Influential power - Power used to influence or persuade others
      • Modality
        • Epistemic modality - Constructions that express degrees of possibility, probability or certainty
        • Deontic modality - Constructions that express degrees of necessity and obligation
      • Discourse Strategy
        • Repressive discourse strategy - A more indirect way of showing power through constraints
        • Oppressive discourse strategy - Direct way of showing power through constraints
    • Key Terms
      • Ideology - A set of belief systems, attitudes or a world view held by an individual or group.
      • Constraints -  Ways in which powerful participants block or control contributions of less powerful participants, eg interruptions
      • Formulation - The rewording of another's contribution by a powerful participant to impose a certain meaning or understanding


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