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  • Language Theorists
    • Gender
      • Lakoff- The deficit approach.       "womens register"- identified features of womens speach that reflect it as inferior to mens. ( Hedging, super polite froms, over use of qualifiers, avoiding coarse language
        • Geoffrey Beattie- CHALLENGED zimmerman and west and said "one man interrupting would affect the results. Beattie carried out his own study on mixed sex conversationsand found hardly any difference between the amount of interruptions of each gender.
      • Zimmerman and west- studied 11 mixed sex conversations and found that men interrupted more - without taking into account other possible causal factors such as age, ethnicity, class.
      • Debora Tannen- The difference approach.        6 points of contrast claims that mens and womens language was not superior or inferior, just different.          Advice versus understanding Information versus feelings              ect...
      • O'Barr and Atkins- power/context approach. Studied courtroom cases and witnesses speeches and found that language features that reflected a subordinate position were as a result of authority differences, not gender.
      • Pamela Fishman- conversations break down because of the way men respond/ don't respond.
    • Power
      • Waering-different types of power.   Political, personal and social.
      • Fairclough-influential power and instrumental power.
      • Brown and Levinson- FACE threatening acts.
      • Eakins and Eakins-  men took more turns.
      • Hornyak- work talk to personal talk was decided by the highest ranking person.
      • Holmes and Marra- women use just as much humour as men
      • Herring- mens messages on an internet forum were twice as long as womens.
    • Occupation
      • Herring- mens messages on an internet forum were twice as long as womens.
      • Labov- NY department store.
    • Age
      • Penelope Eckert- different definitions of age: chronological, biological ect.    different life circumstances have an effect on language.
      • Bingham- "emerging adulthood"
      • Jenny Cheshire- (similar to Bingham and Eckert) " adult language develops in response to important live events.
      • Strenstrom- found common feautures of teen talk- taboo lexis, slang ,ireegular turn taking ect...
    • Accent and Dialect
      • Labov- NY department store. Found differences in pronunciation of middle class, working class and upper class employees when saying ' the fourth floor'.
      • Labov- marthas vineyard.         Labov studied the accents of the residents of marthas vineyard and found that the fishermen diverted their accent to seclude themselves from the visitors while the residents adapted their accent in order to suit the visitors. over time the majority accents changed- convergence and divergence.
      • Milroy and Milroy- looked at the correlation between the integration of people in a community and found from the evidence that accent and dialect was strongly influenced by the level of integration.
      • Gary Ives- English to        Punjabi.         found that children who were able to speak punjabi and english kept aspects of their punjabi dialect when speaking to peers but spoke in full english to their parents.
      • David Crystal- Cockney rhyming slang.         noticed an obsession with celebrities within new cockney rhyming slang but argued that in a 2000 study, 80% of students didn't understand the CRS which suggests it is dying out, however some have been turned into idioms (porkies).
      • Peter Trudgill.   found links between prestige and pleasantness within accents and dialects.   Liverpool was seen as unpleasant while Edinburgh was judged as pleasant.
      • Howard Giles- accommodation theory. Convergence and divergence.
    • Edelsky- found in mixed sex meetings, men spoke for longer and took more turns throughout.


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