Unit 2; Core Studies; Levine et al

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  • Levine et al
    • Aims
      • see if a city's helpfulness to strangers is stable over  a range of cultures
      • research if substantial variation exists across cultures
      • identify country-level variables related to helping
    • Sample: 1198 in total in 23 different cities
    • IV: city/culture DV: if stranger helped or not
    • Procedure
      • Dropped pen: experimenter dropped pen; helping was informing or picking it up
      • Hurt leg: experimenter with limp dropped magazines; was offering /giving help
      • Helping blind: experimenter wore dark glasses & had a cane that they held out waiting to cross road; helping was informing of green light
      • Discarded tasks included asking for change and dropping letters by postboxes
      • avoided bias by always using 2nd person approaching
    • Results
      • 93.3% helped in Brazil=best, 40.3% helped in Malaysia = worst
      • no correlation between population & behaviour
      • people in coountries with less purchasing power parity helped more
      • no correlation between collectivist /individualist culture & behaviour
      • no correlation between pace of life & behaviour
      • 'simpatia' countries were more helpful 82.87% compared to 65.87% in non-simpatia
    • Ethics: broke consent, deception,  withdrawal, debrief
    • Reliability & Validity
      • IR: same training, consistency over measures
      • ER: large sample but variation in measuring?
      • IV: researchers could have done different procedures
      • EV: field study so high in ecologial, generalisable
    • Ethnocentrism: used 'world' cities but few studies in Africa, USA
    • Summary
      • Social area: 4 variables are social
      • helping others: levels varied considerably
    • Debates
      • Individual vs Situational:  culture affects help level as well as situation


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