Lipids (fats)

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  • Lipids (fats)
    • Functions
      • Energy storage
        • Gram for gram lipids provide more than double the amount of energy of carbohydrates
      • Thermal insulation
        • Adipose tissue under the skin helps reduce heat loss
      • Protection
        • adipose tissue around delicate organs such as the kidneys acts as a cusion against physical damage
    • Waxes
      • similar to lipids but also contain alcohol
      • forms waxy cuticle to reduce water loss in plants and insects
    • structure (triglyceride) = glycerol and three fatty acids
      • ester bonds between glycerol and fatty acids
      • Formed by condensation and broken by hydrolysis
    • saturated and unsaturated fats
      • unsaturated has c=c
      • saturated doesn't have c=c
    • cholesterol and high/low density lipoproteins
      • cholesterol is carried in the blood attached to lipoproteins because it is insoluble in water
      • LDL or 'bad cholesterol' contain a high level of cholesterol and can lead to atheroma's that restrict blood flow in arteries and can cause heart disease /attack
      • HDL or 'good cholesterol' contains less cholesterol and does not lead to atheroma's. it takes cholesterol to the liver to be broken down
    • Phospholipids
      • structure= glycerol, phosphate group and two fatty acids
      • properties
        • hydrophilic head due to negative charge in phosphate group
        • Hydrophobic tails as they're uncharged
      • functions =  lipid bilayer (cell membrane and organelle membranes)


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