Long Term Psychological Preparation

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  • Long Term Psychological Preparation
    • Goal Setting
      • Goals need to be SMARTER: Specific, Measurable, Agreed, Realistic, Time-bound, Exciting, Recorded
      • Types of Goal
        • Outcome Goals: concerned with an end product such as winning a competition
        • Performance Goals:relate to direct performance such as performing a personal best
        • Process Goals: are centred on technique such as improving tennis serve
      • Why is goal setting important?
        • Increases motivation
        • Builds self confidence and reduces anxiety and control arousal
        • Provides performer with structured pathway for development
      • Problems with goal setting
        • Unrealistic goals can reduce motivation
        • Too many goals can reduce motivation and reduce organisation
        • The time frame for completion is out if reach, can reduce motivation
    • Performance Profiling
      • What does Performance Profiling achieve
        • Identifies areas that require psychological interventions
        • To aid motivation and adherence to the programme
        • To allow athletes to compare with and copy successful/ elite performers
        • To identify your psychological skills training
    • Rituals
      • Common rituals include
        • Opening and closing ceremonies
        • National anthems before games
        • Superstition before a game
        • Shaking hands before and after a match
    • Attribution Theory
      • Internal Factors: A factor the athlete has control over
      • External Factor: A factor normally beyond the athletes control
      • Luck
      • When losing the coach will attribute the loss to luck and task difficulty as they are external reasons
      • When winning the coach will attribute the victory to internal reasons such as ability and effort
      • Learned Helplessness: When an individual perceives defeat as inevitable, decision is made based on past experience. These performers have low self-esteem.
    • Motivation
      • Intrinsic Motivation: It is the drive to play sport for joy, satisfaction. It is to actually take part in the sport.
      • Extrinsic Motivation: External rewards such as praise from a coach, money or trophies
      • Achievement Motivation
        • Nach: Need To Achieve Select challenging risks, take risks, don't fear failure, perform better when being evaluated
        • Naf: Need to avoid Failure, seek low risk challenges, perform worse when being evaluated, take easy options, avoid shame and humiliation, tend to give up easily
    • Group Cohesion
      • Factors affecting group cohesion
        • Environmental: age, club membership, location, employment, or ethos
        • Personal: belief in the group, a desire to win, desire to achieve excellence
        • Leadership: the influence of the coach or manager in building identity and affiliation
        • Team: in relation to the group as a whole, targets set, the ability and role of each member of the group
      • Task Cohesion: the degree to which performers of a group work together to achieve common goals
      • Social Cohesion: the degree to which members of a team are like each other and interact accordingly
      • Building Group Cohesion
        • Forming- the group meets and is assembled
        • Storming- heightened tension may develop as roles in team are established
        • Norming- rules and standards of behaviour are agreed as cohesion is built
        • Performing- the group matures and work together
  • Ability
  • Task Diff


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