A Level - RS - Modern Approach - Alastair MacIntyre Part 1

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  • Modern Approach - Alastair MacIntyre Part 1
    • In 'After Virtue' (Duckworth 1997)
      • He claimed that virtues are not static and unchanging
        • but come out of the communities in which they are to be practiced
          • Virtues belonging to particular times and places
            • have a historical context.
              • Thus making virtue ethics useful and appropriate for modern living because they can move and change as culture changes
                • He observed "The whole human life reaches it's highest point in the activity of a spectacular philosopher with a reasonable income."
    • He noted that deontological and consequential-ist theories are of little value
      • They are too time consuming and complex.
        • A virtue based approach is more realistic and applicable to everyday life.
          • When people are faced with moral dilemmas they tend to naturally turn to virtue based answers
            • they are the most realistic and applicable
    • He supports, yet refines Ari's original views
      • Main goal of virtue is to provide humans with a good reason for acting morally
        • Introduced 'Practice' - found in all human societies
          • are ways of acting through 'internal goods'
            • which lead to standards of excellencies.
              • He wrote -
                • "Any coherent and complex form of socially-established co-operative human activity, through which goods internal to that form of activity are realised in the course of trying to achieve those standards of excellence..."
                  • "...which are appropriate to that form of the activity with the result that human powers to achieve excellence are extended."


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