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  • Morley's madrigals
    • he was a pupil of WILLIAM BYRD
    • He led the way in establishing the LIGHTER style of madrigal, particularly the CANZONET
    • He TRANSCRIBED Italian models and ASSIMILATED Italian stylistic features into his own writing
    • He EDITED and PUBLISHED 'The TRIUMPHES of ORIANA. 29 madrigals by 26 composers.
    • Morley included 2 of his madrigals in The Triumphes of Oriana. 'HARD BY A CRYSTAL FOUNTAIN' and 'ARISE, ARISE'.
    • Nearly all his publiactions date from the 1590's and after 1601 he withdrew from the madrigal scene.
    • He followed the TEXT carefully but did not allow it to dominate the MUSIC.
    • He wrote only a few more serious madrigals in 5 or 6 parts.
    • In his SERIOUS madrigals he tended to AVOID chromatic progressions, false relations, suspensions, abrupt contrasts and dramatic rhythmic effects.
    • In his BALLETTS he showed more FREEDOM in the use of the REFRAIN.
    • He often regarded the FA-LA-LA refrain as an opportunity for VIRTUOSO COUNTERPOINT or he arranged a DOUBLE FA-LA-LA with the 1st part in rapid movement and the 2nd suspended in half beat notes.
    • He imitated the 4 part Italian canzonet in its general dimensions, AABCC structure, contrapuntal style, frequent homophonic interludes and regular division by clear cadences.
    • He experimented with rewriting an existing Italian composition by Croce to produce a PARODY MADRIGAL,'Hard by a Crystal Fountain'
    • His later canzonets for 5/6 voices (1597) were more varied, exhibit contrapuntal ingenuity, were published with a LUTE part and were more complicated in terms  of adding new words on the repeat of the 1st section to that of the 2nd.
    • Hard by a Crystal Fountain is in F MAJOR
    • Hard by a Crystal Fountain is set for 6 voices SSATTB, texturally it is often reduced to a semi-choir and only uses the full 6 voices at important cadence points.
    • Hard by a Crystal Fountain's general style is CONTRAPUNTAL.
    • Hard by a Crystal Fountain modulates from the tonic F major to C, Bb and G.
    • In Hard by a Crystal Fountain Morley uses suspensions, tierce de Picardie, metre change and illustration of individual words


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