N4/5 DNA and the production of proteins

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  • Created on: 09-10-22 14:11
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  • DNA and the production of proteins
    • Protein synthesis
      • mRNA
        • Stands for Messenger/Messengery Ribonucleic acid
        • Produced in the nucleus
        • Carries the complementary copy of the genetic code to cytoplasm, so that it can be used in ribosomes for protein synthesis.
        • Along mRNA, thymine is replaced by uracil
      • Proteins
        • Amino acids
          • Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins
          • They are produced during translation, within the ribosomes
          • Coded for by triplets of bases along mRNA
        • Determine specific characteristics such as hair/eye colour
          • Explanation of how genes determine eye colour
      • Protein synthesis is the process in which proteins are produced
        • Protein synthesis has two stages; transcription and translation
          • Within stage 1 - Transcription, mRNA copies the DNA of a gene
          • Within stage 2 - translation, mRNA is used to form amino acids within a ribosome
          • Explanation of translation and transcription
      • 3D video showing the process of protein synthesis
    • DNA structure
      • DNA
        • Bases
          • DNA is made up of 4 bases; Adenine, Thymine, Guanine and Cytosine
          • Bases always come in pairs called the complementary base pairs; A - T and G - C
          • Bases connect using hydrogen bonds. These bonds are generally considered to be weak.
        • Stands for Diroxyribonucleic acid
        • Carries the genetic code which determines the characteristics of an organism
        • Nucleotides
          • Nucleotides are the sub units of DNA.
          • Nucleotides consist of a phosphate, a deoxyribo sugar and a base
          • Phosphates and sugars join using strong chemical bonds. These bonds are considered to be strong.
          • Nucleotide structure
        • In animal, plant and fungal cells, DNA is found in the mnucleus. In bacterial cells, it is found within the single bacterial chromosome.
        • DNA is unique to each individual
      • Genes
        • Genes are made up of DNA
        • Genes are passed on from parent to offspring
        • They code for the production of a specific protein
      • Chromosomes
        • Chromosomes are made of coiled DNA
        • Are found within every living cell
    • Quizlet set on DNA and the production of proteins


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