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  • Nationalism
    • The Nation and The Nation-state
      • Nation = group of people who share particular characteristics such as language, history, culture and religion
      • Nation-state = A group of people regarding themselves as a nation rule themselves in their own sovereign territory
      • Nationalism = Identification with one's own nation and support for its interests
      • - Scottish people want independence, Kurdish people want an independent Kurdistan from Iran, Iaq, Syria and Turkey, Catalan wants independence from Spain, Giorgia Meloni who is far-right nationalist of Italy she joined the Italian Social Moevement which was founded by Mussolini- fascist and opposed Eu laws and immigration
    • Origins
      • - During the Enlightenment period of the 19th century the concept of a nation began to be seen as a political as well as cultural distinction because it was 'organic' and could bind people together
      • - During the 19th century, liberal nationalism exemplified by the spirit of the French and American revolutions spread throughout Europe e.g its main manifestations was in the unification of Italy and among people who were subjugated to the Austro-Hungarian Empire such as Czech and Hungary
      • - US president Woodrow Wilson declared that all nations were entitled to statehood after the breakup of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Turkish Ottoman Empire defeated in the Great War
    • Conservative nationalism - The organic nation
      • - Stressed the national spirit and the power of patriotism
      • - Conservative nationalism was an effective response to social divisions, especially class conflicts
      • - Disraeli advocated 'one-nationism' where collective identity transcended class divisions
      • - Liberal nationalists saw the nation as subordinate to the state, the nation allowed the state to retain its identity
      • - German conservatives saw the state as a servant of the nation. Johann Fitche (1762-1814) saw the nation as a cultural reality largely based on a common language. He believed that people united by history and patriotism wlll achieve great progress in terms of economic and intellectual civilisation
      • - Johann Von Herder based his nationalism on romatic mythology of people's historical roots, cultural nationalism as opposed to liberal. Referred to people with strong cultural identity as Volk and spirit that bound them as Volkgeist
    • Nationalism in the 20th century
      • - Conservative nationalism translated to fascism in Italy, Spain, Hungary, parts of the Balkans and into Nazism in Germany
      • - Moderate conservative nationalism re-emerge as nativism which stresses that the interests of indigenous people should be placed above later immigrant groups
      • - Marxists opposed nationalism in the 19th century because it drew away from the plight of the working classes. Capitalism promoted nationalism and patriotism to prevent class consciousness from developing
      • - Movements to free people from colonial rule led to socialist nationalism led by Cuba as well as regimes in Southern Africa and South America. They adopted socialism as the partner of nationalism as a capitalist future would cause newly independent states to fall into hands of international capitalism




Thanks for sharing this great schematic! Donkey Kong

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