Nationalism pt 2

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  • Nationalism
    • Human nature
      • Jean-Jacques Rousseau - Rational individuals desire their own freedom
      • Johann Von Herder - A collective identity based on a cultural group with a common language and history
      • Guiseppe Mazzini - People have a romantic perception of their origins and desire liberty
      • Charles Maurras - Human nature is defined by ethnic identity
      • Marcus Garvey - One's race is an important part of individual and national identity
      • Cultural nationalism- refers to a kind of collective identity that relates to the organic unity of the nation. Can be liberal or conservative in nature
        • Liberal cultural nationalism - flourishes among people who feel that their distinctive culture is threatened by a more dominant culture. They don't seek independence but that their identity is respected and protected e.g Welsh nationalism, Bretons in France and Lapps in Scandinavia
        • Conservative cultural nationalism - movements that believe their national characteristics are superior to others e.g Serbian nationalism between the world wars in the Balkans and the Arab nationalism in North Africa after the fall of the Ottoman Empire
      • Racialism - Belief that racial distinctions are the important form of national identity. It can be more radical where one state is favoured another e.g nativism which suggests the original race that occupied the territory should be favoured over the ones that arrived later, Anglo saxons from USA to Irish and Chinese migrants
      • Racism - when a racial group feels it is superior to others which translates into discrimination and suppression e.g Afrikaaner nationalism in South Africa under apartheid regime. The white minority  saw them as superior to indigenous black population, mixed and immigrant groups from India
      • - Natural instinct towards nationhood. Liberal see humans as rational and make choice out of own free will whilst conservative see them are drawn towards the familiar and the known- unite around common traits
    • State
      • Self - determination - Advocated by Jean- Jacque Rousseau and arose from Enlightenment period. As democracy spread in the 19th century, South Africa, Europe and Asia demanded self-determination from imperial rule. Spanish Empire dismantled in the mid-19th century (Chile independent in 1817 and Argentina unified in 1861). Collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and Ottoman Empire end of WW1
      • Nation-state - some are multinational so contain more than one national grouping e.g UK, Russian Federation and China despite sharing a common language. Some states are unified by shared political values e.g USA, South Africa's 'rainbow nation' where different groupings come together to create a new national identity based on diversity, Nelson Mandela. Some nations exist within another nation-state and either seek independence e.g Scotland or are content but seek respect for their national culture
      • Jean-Jacques Rousseau - The state is the basis of any legitimate state and is the vehicle for self-determination
      • Johann Von Herder - States are only legitimate if based on the collective identity of a people who share a common language and culture
      • Guiseppe Mazzini - The state is the romantic expression if the unity of the people
      • Charles Maurras - Some nation states (and their people) are superior to others
      • Marcus Garvey - States have been constructed to reinforce white supremacy. Black people should unite to form a black state
      • Patriotism - Strong sense of attachment to and pride in the state in which one lives. Where the nation and state are closely allied this is known as national pride. But nationalism is the identification, patriotism is pride
      • - Liberals see the state as the body nations aspire to. Conservatives use the state as a device to unite a nation. Expansionists use the state as a means of dominance e.g Mussolini and Hitler


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