Nationalism pt 4

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  • Nationalism - Liberal Nationalism
    • Key ideas
      • - Generally accepted as the earliest form of modern nationalism and linked to the Enlightenment because the stress on rational thinking and the right of individuals to determine their own free will led to nationalists to believe that the nation-state was the ultimate expression of rational government. Form of progressive nationalism
      • - Until the 19th century most states owed their existence to historical circumstances- Habsburgs, Bourbons and Hanovers were ruling families and got their land through conquest
      • - Philosophy of natural rights meant that rights can only be restored if people themselves became involved in the establishment of government 'self-determination'. Rational philosophy also provided a new justification for government e.g US establishment in 1787 and the French Republic in 1791
      • - President Wilson in 1918 presented a fourteen- point peace plan which insisted that all recognised nations were entitled to become free self-governing states
      • - Flourishes in Scotland, Wales, the Basque Country and Catalonia, Kurds in the Middle East, Chechens in southern Russia
      • - New arrivals into the country should adopt civic nationalism. One nation should not interfere with the value systems of another
      • - Some liberals also believe in liberal internationalism, stressing equality of nations and individual sovereignty
    • Thinker: Guiseppe Mazzini (1805-1872)
      • - The concept of national identity was a romantic idea of Mazzini's who believed in a national spirit which bound people together like Rousseau "It is the sentiment of love, the sense of fellowship, which binds together the sons of that territory". His patriotism was fueled y the injustice that Italy was occupied by the Austrian empire and
      • - In the 1830s he formed the 'Young Italy' movement dedicated to overthrow the hereditary monarchies that dominated the fragmented Italian peninsula and to replace them with a united Italy under democratic rule. He also fought against the domination of Italian states by the Austrian empire at the time. His form of nationalism was known as republicanism
      • - If a nation was not free then the people who made up the nation are also not free. The interests of the nation stands above those of the individual
      • - All humans can express themselves only via their nation and that human freedom rested on the creation of one's own nation state
      • - Collective freedom of the nation was more important than the establishment of individual liberty (counters liberalism subtly)
    • Thinker: Jean-Jacque Rousseau (1712-78)
      • - General will that the government should be based on the indivisible collective will of the community and that nations have a right to govern themselves
      • - Civic nationalism- where the state is legitimate because it is based on the active participation of ts citizens
      • - General will, Government- should listen to the collective will of the people and ensure it is applied universally, civic nationalism
    • Key components
      • - Romanticism and based on national identity reinforced by Mazzini
      • - Rationalism because it underpins how a nation state should function and be governed, civic and inclusive nationalism
      • - Self-determination by the state governed by the consent of the people was the best way of protecting natural rights
        • - A self -determined democratic republic will have a constitution which guarantees rights e.g US and France
      • - Nations should respect each other unless one nation harms another e.g UK and Germany in 20th century and if a nation harms its own citizens e.g UK and US airstrikes on Syria 2018 for chemical weapons used on people
      • - Supranational organisations and treaties promote liberal internationalism and provides order as well as guaranteeing liberal principles. Free trade helps facilitate dependence


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