Nationalism pt 5

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  • Nationalism - Conservative nationalism
    • Key ideas
      • - For much of the 19th century conservative nationalists were suspicious of liberal nationalism because they feared it would lead to the destruction of traditional forms of authority
      • - Otto Von Bismarck saw Prussian nationalism as the means by which German people could be united and the deep historical values of Prussia could be advanced. He became chancellor of a united Germany in 1871 and created the new German Volkgeist and wanted ti dominate the European continent, "iron and blood"
      • - Garibaldi admired German nationalism and believed that the unity of Italy was essential. So long as they suffered domination by foreign powers such as France and Austria Italy could never be great. Nationalism is forged through armed struggle and sacrifice
      • - Belief in an organic nation, euroscepticism, reserved about immigration and against supranationalism (inward looking nations). Regressive nationalism
      • - Vladmir Putin is a conservative nationalist because he seeks to a create a unity out of the ruins of the Soviet Union and his ideology is based upon the collective will of the Russian people and the determination to pursue national interests both around Russia's borders and the wider world. Believes he is heir of the great czars and Stalin
    • Thinker: Charles Maurras (1868-1952)
      • - Integral nationalism which is an intensely emotional form if nationalism where individuals are encouraged to submerge themselves into the nation
      • - Militarism where a nation should have a string military base
      • He believed that France had lost its greatness as a result of its abandonment of hereditary monarchy and its separation of church and state and its excessive attachment to democracy. He wanted to restore French nationalism and stressed on patriotism. He believed that the French state and the Catholic Church should be united
      • - Admired fascism and had a nostalgic yearning for a bygone age of glory, an acute xenophobia notably concerning Jews and the establishment of a strong authoritarian state and the restoration of traditional values
      • - His philosophy can be found in the Front national led by Marine Le Pen
      • - Opposed all 3 principles of the French Revolution; excessive freedom led to disrepect of state, equality gave power to ignorant mass and fraternity led people to become loss with inferior people. Proposed a return to the pre-revolutionary France when monarch and Church imposed discipline upon the people and democracy had a limited scope
      • - Interests of and consciousness of individuals should be suppressed in favour of a collective identity and the most powerful collective identity was integral nationalism
      • - Rejected individualism because it would mean less consideration for nation's interest, leading to revolution
    • Thinker: Johann Von Herder (1744-1803)
      • - Cultural nationalism - every nation is different and that each nation has its own cultural identity
      • - Volkgeist - special spirit of the nation
      • - He was seen as part of the growing nationalism among Germans at the time as Germany was divided into many separate states
      • - The world was naturally divide into nations each with its own distinct culture. National culture is developed through historical experience and its main characteristic is a common language
      • - Culturalism, every nation is different. Nations should try to express their volkgeist because nation-states are an expression of cultural differences. Patriotism is important
    • Imperialism and colonialism
      • - Conservative nationalism turns itself into imperialism and colonisation. Britain, France, Spain, Germany, Holland and Belgium had overseas empires
      • - National identity was expressed through colonialism and national pride was replaced by imperial pride
    • Radical nationalism and fascism
      • - The 20th century corrupted form of conservative nationalism. Advocates the complete subjugation of the individual to the will of the governing party, leader embodies the national will e.g Hitler
      • - Places the power and will of the political state above the nation. See the nation as a servant of the state and not the other way round like conservatives do
      • - Conservative nationalists although dictatorial in their character are democrats e.g Churchill and Disraeli, Charles Gaulle of France adn Mustafa Kemal Ataturk of Turkey


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