Nationalism pt 7

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  • Nationalism - Anti-colonial and post- colonial nationalism
    • Key ideas
      • - Growth of European control of the African continents. Europeans wanted to spread their religion and culture across the globe. Many African nations have Portuguese, English or French as their official language which is a leftover from colonial rule
      • - Anti-colonial nationalism is seen as a form of liberal nationalism. It is distinct because it refers to African, Latin American and Asian nations. They did not want to replicate liberal democracies but as a result of post-colonial nationalism found connections with socialism
      • Examples of post-colonial nationalism: Castro, Gaddafi, Asia, Latin America and Africa
      • Examples of anti-colonial nationalism: Ghandi, Robert Mugabe of Zimabwe and Julius Nyerere of Tanzania
      • Anti-colonial nationalism emerges when the indigenous population opposes the illegitimate supremacy of a colonial power
      • Post-colonial nationalism is concerned with the political policies that develop once independence is achieved
        • - Marxism/ socialism, leadership cults and religion
    • Marxism/ socialism of post-colonial nationalism
      • - Many nationalist leaders have been supported by communist regimes e.g Soviet Union or China because they were aware of the danger that having removed their colonial masters they might fall prey to international capitalism and economic imperialism of MNCs
      • - States were developing countries and needed economic development so they adopted Marxist socialist policies. Socialism also contributed to the destruction of local elites led by colonial administrations
      • Examples: Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe and Fidel Castro in Cuba- he overthrew the tool of US economic imperialism. Julius Nyerere of Tanzania who wanted to achieve economic development by a programme of collectivisation of farms under state sponsorship and to foster a 'kinship and community', his policies became known as Ujaama which others modeled. He combined economic development with preservation of village/ family
      • - Post colonialists were attracted by the communal and cooperative aspect of socialism due to pre-existing tribal loyalties
    • Religion
      • - Have adopted a form of religious nationalism which led to the 'Islamic state' in which nationalism is allied with Islamic values and law. This combination was a recognition that national identity can't be achieved without a religious force underpinning it
      • Examples: Gaddafi of Libya, Liaquat Ali Khan of Islamic Republic of Pakistan
      • - The principle of the Islamic Republic has become common in Middle East and Asia
    • Leadership cults
      • - The leader embodies the 'spirit of the nation' in his single personality
      • Examples: Idi Amin of Uganda, Robert Mugabe and kenneth Kaunda of Zambia
      • - There is a need for a strong central authority to help frame national identity suppressed due to colonialism


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