Nationalism pt 8

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  • Nationalism - Black nationalism
    • Key ideas
      • - Black people should be proud of their race and show white people that they can be successful- economically, culturally and politically
      • Examples: Marcus Garvey who advocated for a creation of a new kind of nation which crossed boundaries and created a collective consciousness
      • - Malcolm X in the 1960s wanted to create a black nationalist movement that combined Islamic principles with racial identity called the Nation of Islam. Boxing champion Muhammad Ali became an adherent
        • - He saw the black race as superior and pre-dating the white race. The traditional values of the black race matched those of Islam
      • - Black nationalism was overtaken by a liberal movement which advocated for equality for black people
    • Pan- Africanism
      • - Garvey was the first to articulate the idea of 'black consciousness' based on common ancestry and a common experience of oppression via colonialism and slavery
      • - Black pride, Garvey encouraged African people to be proud of their race "the black skin is not a badge of shame, but  rather a glorious symbol of national greatness"
      • - Garvey argued that Africans in every part of the world must put aside cultural and ethnic differences and reestablish links with African states to create a united Africa
    • Key thinker: Marcus Garvey (1887-1940)
      • - Black people were one race who had been scattered by slavery and divided within Africa itself by colonial rule
      • - By uniting, black people would be capable of throwing off colonial rule and creating a free and united Africa, this doctrine was known as Garveyism
      • - Also a pan-Africanist to propose a unification of the continent. He founded the Universal ***** Improvement Association (UNIA) which was an attempt to counteract the lack of education. Published '***** World' to encourage black education
      • - In the 19th century the state of Liberia was set up in North Africa by anti-slavery campaigners in the USA as a new home for freed salves
      • - Despite his lack of success in his own lifetime he influenced black emancipation movements such as Malcolm X's Nation of Islam campaign and an inspiration for the West Indian Rastafarians in the 1950s onward
      • - Saw Ethiopia as the original breeding ground for human society so it became the focus of interest in future black nationalist movements
      • - Supporter of racial separatism but not to create hostility with white people but to allow black people to find their identity


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