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  • Nature
    • Refers to genetic inheritance and other biological factors
    • Biological Psychologists argue that our genes influence our behaviour rather than environmental factors
    • Certain characteristics are biologically determined by genetic inheritance
      • Eye colour
      • Skin pigmentation
      • Other physical characteristics tend to be influenced by the genetic makeup of the birth parents
        • Height
        • Weight
        • Life expectancy
        • Vulnerability to certain diseases
      • Psychological characteristics may be 'wired in' before a child is born
        • Behaviour tendencies
        • Personality traits
        • Mental abilities
    • Some early theorists believed that our nature cannot be changed and suggested that we have no free will in deciding how to behave and our personal characteristics
      • We are biologically programmed through our genetics
    • We all have an inner 'biological clock' which switches on (or off_ types of behaviour in a pre programmed way
      • Puberty
        • Peri-menopause
          • Menopause
      • Maturation
        • Characteristics and differences not observed at birth, but which emerge later in life
    • Theory supporting nature
      • Arnold Gesell
        • Was a psychologist and paediatrician
        • Used to set developmental milestones based around norms
          • 'Milestone' - the skills and abilities that most children have by a certain age
            • It can involve physical, social, emotional, cognitive, and communication skills
        • Gesell believed that children move through the milestones at their own pace their development is predetermined
        • Gesell believed that the environment had very little impact or influence on development
        • Any problems are a result of hereditary factors
          • Delayed development
        • Positives
          • Gesell identified typical norms of developments and milestones that are still used today
          • He used advanced methodology in his observations of behaviour in a large number of children
            • Around 12,000 children
            • The normative approach
        • Negatives
          • Did not consider the influence of individual or cultural differences in children
          • He believed that the norms of developments he described were desirable
      • Bowlby and Chomsky are also nature theories as they believed it is 'wired into our brains' before we are born
        • Gesell
          • Pre-programmed to hit maturation milestones in order
        • Bowlby
          • Pre-programmed to attach to caregiver
        • Chomsky
          • Pre-programmed to develop language


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