Non-communicable diseases

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  • Non-communicable diseases
    • Health and disease
      • Good health is a state of physical and mental wellbeing
      • Diseases
        • A disease is caused by a part of the body not working properly. this can be either mentally or physically
        • communicable - can spread between organisms
        • non-communicable - cannot be spread between organisms
          • HIV
          • Diabetes
    • Risk Factors
      • Non- communicable diseases are usually caused by many factors
      • Risk factors are a factor that will increase the likelihood of someone getting a disease
      • Types
        • Lifestyle
        • Environment
      • A risk factor does not mean that it causes the disease itself
      • Casual mechanism
        • Cardiovascular disease - lack of exercise/ smoking/ high intake of saturated fat
        • Type 2 diabetes - obesity
        • Liver and brain damage - excessive alcohol intake
        • Lung disease - smoking
        • Skin cancer - ionising radiation e.g. UV light
        • Low birth weight in babies - smoking during pregnancy
        • Brain damage in babies - excessive alcohol intake during pregnancy
    • CHD (Coronary Heart Disease)
      • CHD is layers of fatty material building up inside the coronary arteries causing them to narrow
      • Treatment
        • Stents - a procedure which reopens up the blocked arteries
        • Statins - medication to reduce blood cholesterol and slow down the rate at which fatty material builds up
        • Replacement heart valve - both mechanical and biological replacements can be used
        • In some cases heart transplants can take place, however this come with great risk
    • Cancer
      • Risk factors of cancer include smoking, obesity, common viruses and UV exposure
      • Genetics are also a great risk factor
      • Cancer is causes by an uncontrolled cell division leading to a tumour forming.
      • Types of tumours
        • Benign - are not cancerous and do not spread around the body
        • Malignant - cancerous tumours which spread through the blood around the body causing the form of secondary tumours


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