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  • Nurture
    • Refers to the influence of external factors after conception such as social and environmental factors
    • Psychological characteristics and behavioural differences that emerge through infancy and childhood are the result of learning
      • How you are brought up that governs the psychological aspects of child development
    • Theory supporting nature
      • Albert Bandura
        • Believes that human behaviour is created by the environment
        • Believes that role models play a big part in shaping behaviour
        • Bandura Experiment
          • The aim of the study was to investigate whether young children observe and imitate role models
          • Example
            • An adult hit the doll with a hammer and shouted abuse at it
              • A child was then left alone in the room with the doll
                • The child's behaviour was then observed
                  • It was shown that children who observed aggressive behaviour displayed aggressive behaviour towards the doll
                    • They also were found to use words and behaviour which were similar to the role models
        • Modelling
          • Modelling is where a person copies behaviour of a role model
          • Modelling can also refer to the behaviour as being 'advertised' by the role model
        • Criticisms of Bandura's theory
          • Some researchers argued that the study was unethical
            • As it manipulated children into behaving aggressively
            • The experimenters were teaching the children to be aggressive
          • Lacks validity
            • It is not a valid way of researching human behaviour
    • Types of reinforcement
      • Positive reinforcement
        • The behaviour that is repeated because of personal satisfaction or rewards
      • Negative reinforcement
        • The behaviour is not repeated to avoid an adverse experience such as a lack of satisfaction or to avoid being told off
      • Vicarious reinforcement
        • Where we observe someone else being reinforced or behaving in a  certain way and imitate that behaviour to also be rewarded


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