Observational Techniques

  • Created by: 0045253
  • Created on: 01-06-22 16:41
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  • Observational Techniques
    • Naturalistic
      • Investigations where the researcher observes a situation and records what happens but does not manipulate or change any factors. 
      • STRENGTH
        • High external validity; less demand characteristics
      • WEAKNESS
        • Low control of extraneous variables; difficult to replicate.
    • Controlled
      • the conditions are standardised by the researcher; may be carried out in a laboratory type situation and because variables are manipulated 
      • STRENGTH
        • High control; easier to replicate.
      • WEAKNESS
        • artificial setting; low ecological validity
    • Participant
      • The observer is also a participant in the activity being studied.
      • STRENGTH
        • Build insight; High validity.
      • WEAKNESS
        • Researcher bias; subjective
    • Non-participant
      • The observer remains separate from those they are studying and records behaviour in a more objective manner than a participant observer. 
      • STRENGTH
        • Objective
      • WEAKNESS
        • May lose detail; relies on their perception
    • Covert
      • The participants are not aware that they are being studied. 
      • STRENGTH
        • No demand characteristics; high validity
      • WEAKNESS
        • ethical issues; no informed consent
    • Overt
      • The participants know that they are being observed and the purpose behind the observation.
      • STRENGTH
        • Ethical
      • WEAKNESS
        • Demand Characteristics


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