Occupation Theorists

  • Created by: G-Hobbs
  • Created on: 21-03-18 17:53
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  • Occupation Theorists
    • Grice, 1967 - maxims for cooperative principle
      • Quality - speakers should tell the truth
      • Quantity - should be as informative as is required; neither too little or too much
      • Relevance - contributions should relate to the purpose of the exchange
      • Manner - should be clear, orderly and brief, avoiding ambiguity
    • Giles, 1973 - Accomodation theory
      • convergence - use language to resemble that used by people around us
      • Divergence - use language to distance ourselves from others
    • Drew and Heritage, 1992 - discourse communities
      • discourse communities share inferential frameworks: implicit ways of thinking, communicating and behaving
      • hierarchies of power in organisations - asymmetrical relationships marked by language
      • Goal Orientation - focus on one specific goal
      • turn taking rules or restrictions - e.g. courtroom. sometimes unwritten rules e.g. patient-doctor consultations - dr asks questions
      • Allowable contributions restrictions on what is 'allowable'
      • Professional Lexis (jargon)
      • Structure
      • Asymmetry - one speaker has more power than another e.g. boss and employee
    • French and Raven, 1959 - Five forms of Power
      • Legitimate Power - based on position and power
      • Referent Power - interpersonal skills
      • Expert Power - skills and strengths
      • Reward Power - ability to award those who follow
      • Coercive power - use of negative influences
    • Pateman, 1980 - oppressive and Repressive discourses
      • Oppressive - open expression of power
      • Repressive = exercising coercive power while minimizing overt status differences and good will
    • Koester, 2004 - Phatic talk
      • important to get jobs done
      • workers need to establish interpersonal relationships and have interactions that aren't just about work
      • being sociable and engaging in personal chat = effective working
      • Solidarity - ability to connect with workmates - important dimension in workplace communication
    • Goffman, 1959 - Face theory
      • Face  = public self image that every adult tries to protect
      • Positive face = desire to be liked, admired, ratified and related to positivity
      • Negative face = desire not to be imposed on i.e. "freedom of action and freedom from imposition"
    • Brown and Levenson, 1978 - face threatening acts
      • face threatening acts inherently damage the face of the speaker by acting in opposition to the desires of the other
      • can be verbal, para verbal, non-verbal
      • Politeness principles
        • Bold-on-record strategy = doesn't minimise threats to the hearer
        • Positive politeness strategy - shows recognition of hearers desire to be respected. confirms relationship is friendly and expresses group reciprocity
        • Negative politeness strategy - recognise hearer's face and that you are imposing on them
        • Off-record indirect strategy - take some presure off you. avoid direct fce threatening act of asking - wnat it to be offered.
    • Swales,2011 - discourse communities
      • share a set of common goals
      • communicate internally, using and 'owning' one or more genres of communication
      • use specialist lexis and discourse
      • possess a required level of knowledge and skill to be considered eligible to participate in the community


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