Organic Reactions and Mechanisms Part 2Chemistry^3 Mindmap

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  • Created on: 17-12-22 11:58
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  • Organic Reactions and Mechanisms Part 2 - Classification
    • Acid-base reactions
      • acidic compounds have low pKa values and are good proton donors
      • the more stable the conjugate base, the stronger the acid
      • organic acids generally contain OH or NH, relatively strong acids also have -I and -M groups that stabilize the conjugate base
      • alkynes are more acidic than alkenes or alkanes because the lone pair in the conjugate base is in an sp orbital
      • relatively strong organic bases have +I and +M groups that stabilise the conjugate acid
      • relatively weak neutral organic bases have -I and -M groups
    • Characteristics of acid-base reactions
      • acid-base reactions are equilibrium reactions and POE depends on pKa of the acid and the conjugate acid of the base
      • for an acid to donate a proton to a base, the acid must have a lower pKa than the conjugate acid of the base
      • acids and bases are useful catalysts
    • Redox reactions
      • carbon atoms at the same oxidation level are interconverted without oxidation or reduction
      • carbon atoms at different oxidation level are interconverted by oxidation or reduction
      • increase oxidation level = oxidation
      • decrease oxidation level = reduction
    • Polar reactions
      • electrophilic addition = alkene
      • nucleophilic addition = aldehyde, ketone
      • elimination = haloalkane
      • nucleophilic substitution = haloalkane
      • nucleophilic acyl substitution = carboxylic acid derivatives
      • electrophilic substitution = benzene [and derivatives]


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