Ownership and control (50)

  • Created by: chloe_2
  • Created on: 19-06-16 12:45
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  • Ownership and control
    • Marxist view- Negative 1 AND 2
      • Capitalist ideology = medias content - Fool the proletariat capitalist system is fair
      • Owners directly manipulate the media to get their points across- manipulative model
      • Are concerned by the recent pattern and trend in ownership and control of the mass media
      • Concentration of ownership
        • When large companies take over smaller ones
      • Murdock and Golding
        • Ownership was concentrated in very few hands + top 5 companies dominated each sector of the media
          • Concerned about this, trends strengthening control of the owners= narrower set of views
            • These views are only those of the rich and powerful
      • Pluralist disagree with both. Audience have real control of the content
    • PARA 3
      • NEO     Argue that traditional companies lead to cultural domination and Americanisation
      • PLURALISTSCollins and Murroni point out that llarge companies today have the resources to produce high quality media products and see the trends and patterns in ownership and control as positive.
    • PARA 4
      • MARX    Bourgeoisie own and control the media.
        • Bourgeoisie and state work together to make sure the media carries the message they want
          • Owners of the media companies and the government use the media to brainwash the proletariat by the capitalist ideology
            • Capitalism continues and the owners keep their position of power
      • Miliband supports this- suggests that the ruling class use media to control society by creating false pictures of reality that presents capitalism as fair
        • Proletariats live in a state of false class consciousness as they accept the values of the capitalist system as fair even though they're not
      • Tunstall and Palmer = newspapers can be used to influence how people vote in elections as owners support certain political parties
    • PARA 5
      • This view has been criticised for being over conspirational
      • Negrine = owners of the media are in competition  with each other, so need to provide the audience with what they want in order for their business to survive
      • Pluralists suggest there are many different views in the media not just those of their own.
      • Different newspapers have different views and support different political parties.
        • Morning star is a communist paper and The Telegraph supports the conservative party
      • Pluralists are very critical of the Marxist idea the media only presents the owners views because they have the power to control the media content
    • PARA 6
      • Traditional Marx argue that owners deliberately manipulate the content of the media by directly interfering in their companies
      • Evans has shown how Rupert Murdoch often phones his editiors to tell them what to put on the front page.
        • The former owner of the daily mirror  Robert Maxwell used to go into the offices and tell the editors what to put into the paper.
      • Criticised as it seems impossible because the companies are so large that one person could not control them all
    • PARA 7
      • NEO  = media professionals have most influence over the content of the media. do not ignore the role of the owners. disagree suggest owners have an indirect control.
        • Argue culture important than the economy, suggest media professionals all share a culture= white middle aged, middle class men
          • Their culture reflects the values of capitalism and so agrees with the owners. Owners do not have to directly interfere as the professionals put what the owners want unconsciously
      • Hall supports this view, study policing crisis, found that the media supported the role of the police at a time when some were questioning it, but without much influence or control from the owners
      • Professionals share a culture- criticised for not taking account of the increasing number of media professionals that are women or from ethnic minorities.
      • Pluralists disagree with both
    • PARA 8
      • NEO argue that media professionals are not being deliberate in what they do because of hegemony
        • Hegemony is a dominant culture and Neo argue that professionals create hegemony in society as they put their own world views into the media and do not accept alternative views, so leave them out
      • Fairclough, crimewatch shows an ideal world of the police and public working together, does not show those that alienated by the police. shows that media provides a one sided, capitalist view
      • Neo have been criticised by Pluralistsfor ignoring the variety of views that are in the media. especially new media such as blogs and websites such as youtube. These criticise the rich and powerful, neo view not fully accurate.
    • PARA 8
      • Pluralists= critical of Marx view. Argue its neither the professionals nor owners that control the content of the media, but the audience. Because of supply and demand; the media has to supply what the audience wants or they will go bust.
        • Supported by an ex reporter Whale who said that the content of the newspaper is shaped by the audience.
      • Marxist argue that this overlooks the power of the owners and the bias of the professionals.
    • PARA 9
      • Pluralists also criticise Marxist as the media is seen as the fourth estate the other three are the government, parliament and the judiciary. .
      • They argue that media keeps the others in check and protects democracy. Investigative journalism can often expose problems with the powerful in society.
        • Supported by stories such as MPs expenses scandal which the Daily Telegraph exposed
      • Marxist argue that Pluralists overlook the power of advertisers I'm the media, who are also from the Bourgeoisie. Owners and editors have to please the advertisers by attracting large audiences and not being critical of them .
        • This leads too a narrow set of views being senn in the media.
      • There is also a lack of empirical evidence to support the pluralist views, which makes it quite weak.


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