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  • Perception
    • Direct Realism
      • There is an external world that we percieve directly
      • Issues
        • Illusion
          • The real world is exactly as we percieve it so why do pencils appear crooked underwater?
            • The pencil has the property of looking crooked but it isn't actually
        • Hallucination
          • We percieve things that aren't really there
            • Direct realists don't have an explination of this
        • Perceptual Variation
          • If our perception is direct, objects shouldn't appear different to other people
            • Russell's desk
        • Time Lag argument
          • It takes 8 mins for sunlight to reach us so we experience the sun 8 mins late
            • You're actually percieving the light from the sun directly not the sun
    • Indirect Realism
      • There is an external world that we percieve indirectly via sense data
      • Issues
        • Scepticism
          • If we don't percieve directly, how do we know what we percieve is actually like the external world
            • Russell
              • There's no way to truley know but the content of perception proves the existance of an external world
            • Locke
              • We cannot control what we perceive so our perceptions must come from something
              • Different sense confirm what our sense organ percieve
                • e.g. you can write words and hear someone else to reading them
      • Qualities distinction
        • John Locke
        • Primary
          • Inherent to an object (objective)
            • e.g. size, shape, etc
        • Secondary
          • The power to cause a sensation (subjective)
            • e.g. colour, taste, etc
    • Idealism
      • There is no external world and we percieve ideas directly
        • Bishop George Berkeley
          • Attack on primary qualities
            • Primary qualities are also mind dependant
              • e.g. something that appears small to me may seem large to an animal
              • Because everything we percieve is mind dependant, an external world doesn't exist
          • The Master Argument
            • An object cannot be mind independant if you are thinking of it
          • God
            • God is the reason behind these ideas - we percieve what he wants
              • If there is nothing external, why is God the only exception in existance
      • Issues
        • Solipsism
          • The view that only one's mind can exists
            • If we only percieve ideas, how do we know nything exists, including others
        • Illusions and hallucinations
          • There is no distinction between reality and perception so these shouldn't exist


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