Perception, Unit 2, Psychology.

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  • Perception.
    • Core Theory: The Constructivist Theory.
      • Top-down processing; past experience.
        • Optical illusions are evidence, the brain over-rules what we see.
      • Perceptual set:
        • Expectations: e.g crowded place+friend.
        • Motivation: e.g food brighter being brighter.
      • Criticisms:
        • 6 month old babies, imaginary cliff.
        • Individual experiences, perceived in similar way.
        • Illusions question, fall for it twice.
    • Alternative: The Nativist Theory.
      • Bottom-up processing; immediate+data driven, environment to interpretation.
        • Natural as breathing, all evolved the same way, instinct+biology.
        • E.g concert hall.
    • Core Study: Haber And Levin (2001.)
      • Aim: To test the theories of top-down and bottom-up processing.
      • Procedure:
        • Section 1: Arrival, empty. Section 2: 15 real-world known size. Section 3: 15 real-world different sizes. Section 4: 15 cut out shapes.
          • Repeated measures design: Groups of 3, estimated distance, each did all 3 sections.
          • Results: Accurate real world same size. Supports top-down.
      • Sample: 9 male college students with good eyesight.
      • Limitations:
        • Sample is unrepresentative, too small+gender biased.
        • Task+setting artificial and unfamiliar.
        • Used questionnaire to check familiarity but still subjective.




A very colourful mind map which neatly summarises the Constructivist Theory and the Nativist Theory.

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