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  • Piaget
    • Sensorimotor  0-2 years
      • Object permenance
        • Only believing something exists if it can be seen
      • Interacting with the world using eyes, ears, hands, and mouth
      • Piaget believed babies could not remember or think of the world until they were 18 months old
    • Preoperational 2-7 years
      • Egocentric thinking
        • Not being able to see things from another's perspective
        • Piaget believed that a young child assumed that other people see, hear, and feel exactly the same as they do
        • Swiss mountain test
      • The use of symbols to represent earlier sensorimotor discoveries
      • Development of language and pretend play.
      • Piaget believed that children at this stage could not properly understand number, mass, and volume
    • Concrete Operational  7-11 years
      • Concrete Logical Thinking
        • Ability to solve problems that can be physically seen
        • Piaget believed that the ability to think logically does not happen until around the age of 7
      • Children's reasoning becomes logical, providing the issues are concrete
        • May need physical cues to answer logical questions
        • May need visuals to be able to answer
      • Test of conservation
        • In the Concrete Observational stage a child can understand the test of conservation meaning the appearance can change but the quantity stays the same
    • Formal Operational  11-18 years
      • Abstract Logical Thinking
        • The ability to solve problems using imagination
      • Abstract thinking is developed allowing adolescents to answer scientific and mathematical questions
      • Have the ability to think of other possible outcomes in their heads
      • They will not necessarily need visual clues.
    • Schemas
      • A series of stages of intellectual development
      • Assimilation - The constructions of  concept (schema)
        • Equilibrium - A state of cognitive balance when a child's experience is in line with what they understand
          • Disequilibrium - A state of cognitive imbalance between experience and what is understood
            • Accommodation - Modifying schemas (concepts) in relation to new information and experiences
    • Criticisms
      • His theory only looked at individuals in the early years sector
      • His theory only looked at small numbers of children
      • He might have underestimated/ overestimated children's cognitive ability
      • Other researchers argue that children take longer than 11 years to become skilled at abstract logical thinking
      • Some children can see things from the perspective of others
      • His studies did not include children with disabilities


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