Psychology - Memory - Brandon Harvey

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  • Psychology-Memory
    • Flow of Memory
      • Encoding - Changing information so that it can be stored.
      • Storage -Holding information in the memory system.
      • Retrieval - Recovering information back from storage.
    • Multi-Store
      • Multi-Store - The idea that the information passes through a series of memory stores.
      • Sensory Store - Holds information received from the senses for a short period of time.
      • Short Term - Holds approximately 7 chunks of information for a limited time.
      • Long Term - Holds a vast amount of information for a very long period of time.
    • Studies
      • Bartlett
        • Method - Read 'War of Ghosts'. British Participants had to recall it lots of times. Results - Participants changed unfamiliar words to more familiar versions of the word. The more it was recalled, the more it was changed. Conclusion - We reconstruct memories by using our own knowledge and beliefs.
          • Evaluation- Negative - Very hard to measure the accuracy of the stories told with a reliable scoring method. It is also very confusing and not similar to everyday experiences.
      • Peterson & Peterson
        • Method - Participants were told to learn Nonsense Trigrams for 1 minute. They had to count back for varying time to block rehearsal. Results - They found that after 18 seconds of counting back their memory went and couldn't remember any of the trigrams. Conclusion - Rehearsal is necessary to hold STMS.
      • Craik and Lockhart
        • Method - They gave participants a list of words + questions. The questions made participants process words at different levels/depths. Results - 70% of semantic words were remembered. 35% of phonetic words were remembered. 15% of structural words were remembered. Conclusion- The deeper something is processed, the more likely we are to remember it.
          • Evaluation - Negative - Doesn't explain why deeper levels of processing helps memory. Low ecological validity as it was done in a lab; cannot generalise to real world.
    • Levels of Processing
      • Structural Processing (shallow) - Physical appearance of information.
      • Phonetic Processing (middle) - Sounds of information.
      • Semantic Processing (deep) - Meaning of information.


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