psychology research methods

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  • Psychology research methods
    • Laboratory experiments=Establish a cause and effect and find a relationship between the IV and DV
      • Advantages = high degree of control over variables. Easy to replicate
      • Disadvantages= High demand characteristics. Low ecological vaildiity
    • Field experiments= Establish cause and effect conducted in real-life settings and situations
      • Advantages=High ecological validity. Low demand characteristics
      • Disadvantages = Low degree of control over variables. Difficult to replicate
    • Natural experiments= IV varies naturally and isn't deliberately manipulated by the researcher
      • Advantages = High ecological validity. Provides opportunities for research.
      • Disadvantages= Random allocation to conditions isn't possible. Difficult to replicate
    • Quasi experiment = where conditions already exist so IV can't change
      • Advantages = High ecological validity. Opportunities for research.
      • Disadvantages= Random allocation to conditions isn't possible. Difficulty to replicate.
    • Opportunity sampling= anyone who is willing and available to take part at the time
      • Advantages = Quick, convenient, economical
      • Disadvantages= Can be bias and unrepresentative.
    • Volunteer = Put themselves forward
      • Advantages = Quick, convenient and economical
      • Disadvantages = can be bias and unrepresentative.
    • Systematic sampling = Every nth number of people in the target population
      • Advantages= Avoids researcher bias
      • Disadvantages = Not guaranteed to be representative
    • Random sampling = everyone in the target population has an equal chance of being selected.
      • Advantages = Avoids researcher bias
      • Disadvantages = not guaranteed to be representative
    • Stratified sampling = sample that reflects the proportions of people in different subgroups according to their frequency within the population
      • Advantages = Highly representative
      • Disadvantages = Time-consuming and inconvenitent


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